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Say you're eating a mixture of something requiring a mezonot blessing mixed with something requiring a shechakol blessing. By the rules of ikar and tafel you would just say a mezonot on the entire mixture - granted all the rules of ikar and tafel are in effect.

With this being the case, do you need to eat a kezayis of the ikar part in order to justify reciting an al hamichya or is it enough to eat a kezayis of the entire mixture (with some parts being non-mezonot) in order to say the al hamichya?

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You do not need to eat a kezayis of the ikar part in order to justify reciting the appropriate after-blessing for the ikar part.

The source is Iggeros Moshe OC 4 (42) . Rav Feinstein ז״ל deals with the case where a person eats less than a kzayis of salty fish (the ikkar in this case) and a kzayis of bread afterwards (as the tofel). (See the example in OC 212.)

The questioner asks if the after-brocho is birkas hamozon or borei nefoshos. Rav Feinstein paskens that the after-brocho is borei nefoshos. (See the teshuva for why.)

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    This is only true in that situation. If the Ikkur would require an al hamichya but was not a kizayis and only with the tafful completes a kizayis, we would have an argument between the kitzur and Reb Moshe. – user6591 Dec 29 '15 at 0:20

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