This OU article touches on the question and says
Iggerot Moshe OC 3:7 rules that one should daven in shul with a minyan
even if he would have more kavanah if he davens privately at home.
More detail: The Iggerot Moshe (IM) says that if someone can have the minimum essential kavannah to perform the mitzva of prayer even when he davens with a tzibbur then he should pray with the tzibbur even though he lacks the kavannah that he would like.
(I assume that this minimum essential kavannah is for the first bracha of the Amidah and that the person knows is praying before HKB"H.)
IM quotes his responsum OC 2 (27) where he proves there is a definite obligation to daven with a minyan. He goes on to say that the prayers of a tzibbur are always accepted whereas the prayers of an individual, however great he is, cannot be guaranteed to be accepted. Therefore the obligatory davenning in a tzibbur is better than the extra kavannah he might get by praying alone. This extra kavannah is anyway not guaranteed because in our times there is no-one who can claim that he has proper kavannah. That people nowadays do not have proper kavannah is brought down as halacha in OC 70 (3) (regarding krias shema but presumably true about other prayer too).
Therefore the Iggerot Moshe says that in order to gain the extra kavannah that someone imagines he may get by praying alone, he cannot push away his obligation to pray with a tzibbur.