Are there any known uses of cryptography (or similar) in Jewish History?
On the back of a mezuzah there are written the letters כוזו במוכסז כוזו, which is a Caesar cipher (with a shift of 1) for the names of Hashem in the first verse of Shema.
There are a plethora of laws encrypted in the Torah. The cipher is the 13 (or 7 or 32) middos of Derash.
Rashbam shemos 3:15 uses א"ת ב"ש
It says "Histakel B'Oraisa U'Boro Alma". Hashem looked in the Torah and created the world. The entire Torah has many hidden codes inside which over the many generations some have been revealed to us.