Is every single punishment given in the form of Mida K'neged Mida ("Measure for Measure" - i.e. the punishment is in the same vein as the transgression) or just in some special cases?
sometimes no. Job's suffering was chosen for other reasons as the shaar bitachon says ch.3
To demonstrate his good bearing and good acceptance of suffering in the service of G-d, so that others will learn from him, as you know from the matter of Job.