The earliest sefardic siddur dates back to the 800's, see Is there a free copy of this early (earliest?) siddur online?. What is the oldest ashkenaz siddur, and it is available on the web or for purchase?

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    Do you have any reason to think that Siddur resembles Sefardi Nusach more than Ashkenazi Nusach?
    – Double AA
    Oct 13, 2015 at 21:34
  • I think the earliest Siddur which seems to follow what is now "Nusach Ashkenaz" is Siddur Rav Maram Ga'on. It's online in hebrewbooks.com. You can prob. find a copy ina good Judaica store as well.
    – DanF
    Oct 13, 2015 at 22:21
  • @DanF, According to Wikipedia, R' Amram Gaon's siddur is actually corrupt. Unlike the Rasa"g's siddur, no manuscript dates back to the geonic period or Bavel. As such, depending on the edition, Seder R' Amram Gaon could end up looking like any one of a variety of Rishonic siddurim. Oct 13, 2015 at 23:43
  • Courtesy ping @DoubleAA ^ Oct 13, 2015 at 23:44
  • I believe the earliest Ashkenazi siddurim are Siddur Rashi and the Machzor Vitry. The author of the latter was a talmid of Rashi's and IIRC, incorporates many of his rav's usages. Oct 13, 2015 at 23:45

1 Answer 1


Machzor Vitry by Rabbi Simcha ben Shmuel of Vitry was written around the year 1100. It is not only a high-holiday machzor, but also contains the services for weekdays, Shabbat, and festivals, and customs and laws following the rulings of Rashi. Rav Simcha was a talmid of Rashi, and the machzor reflects the customs of Jews in early medieval France. This is believed to be the basis for Nusach Ashkenaz. A two-volume printed edition of it can be purchased here (it says three volumes, but I think it is really two). An online edition can be found here. Be warned though that some manuscripts and printed editions of this book have extraneous material added in and do not mark those as later additions not by Rav Simcha.

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    This is Nusach Tsarfat, which is close to, but not the same as, Nusach Ashkenaz.
    – magicker72
    Apr 23, 2020 at 20:15

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