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It is common practice to add psalm 130 ("mimaamakim") to shacharis during the ten days of repentance. In my experience, most congregations say it between p'suke d'zimra and "Bar'chu" (immediately before kadish), while a few do so between sh'mone esre and chatzi kadish (immediately after "Avinu malkenu"). What reasons (or authorities) are there for reciting it at either point as opposed to the other?

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    Well, saying it later avoids possible issues of Hefsek between yishtabach and barchu – Double AA Sep 16 '15 at 13:46
  • IINM some say it just before yishtabach – Double AA Sep 16 '15 at 13:46
  • In some communities they don't say it at all. – DonielF Oct 10 '17 at 22:17
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The earliest source I could find is the באר היטב in Shulchan Aruch סימן נד - דינים השיכים לישתבח where he says in the name of the Magen Avraham:

ב) ליוצר. בכתבים כתוב לומר ביו''ד ימי תשובה מזמור ממעמקים קראתיך ה' בין ישתבח ליוצר וצ''ע. מ''א ‏

"The custom brought in the בכתבים is to say the Tehillim of ממעמקים between Yishtabach and Yotzer - and this requires research."

  • From the "this requires research" it seems that he's not comfortable with it.

  • He doesn't specify if it was before or after Kaddish.

    • However from the accompanying Remo - הגה it's clear it was before Kaddish, as he explicitly says בֵּין קַדִּישׁ לְבָרְכוּ לֹא יַפְסִיק בְּשׁוּם דָּבָר.

His source is כתבים - that's how he referred to the writings of the Talmidei HaAri z"l. So that seems to be the origin of the Minhag.

The Aruch HaShulchan also mentions the above, and says that he doesn't understand why the Magen Avraham is uncomfortable with this, as it's OK to add relevant prayers there, to the point that the Rambam says to add אָז יָשִׁיר there.

ואין זה ענין למה שיש נוהגים לומר בעשרת ימי תשובה ''שיר המעלות ממעמקים'' אחר ''ישתבח'', דזה נחשב כמסדר התפילה, כמו דלהרמב''ם אומרים ''אז ישיר'' אחר ''ישתבח'' כמו שכתבתי בסימן נ''א. והפסק לא מקרי רק דברי חול. (והמגן אברהם סעיף קטן ב' נשאר ב''צריך עיון'', ולא ידעתי למה.)

I can't find a classic source for the second custom you mention between sh'mone esre and chatzi kadish (immediately after "Avinu malkenu").

And nobody seems to bring a reason for this addition.

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