What does the Torah, encompassing all of Jewish works, say about the duties and responsibilities of a father? I would like some sources on the matter.
Jerusalem Talmud 70b mentions (as we do in the Passover Hagaddah) that the Torah cites 4 different verses all related to the obligation that a father must teach his son about the Exodus from Egypt. The four verses are related to the behavior and character of four types of children.
Mishneh Torah, Torah Study 1:2 (from Sefaria.com):
כשם שחייב אדם ללמד את בנו כך הוא חייב ללמד את בן בנו שנאמר והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך
Just as a person is obligated to teach his son, so too he is obligated to teach his grandson, as it says, "And make them known to your children, and to your children's children" (Deut 4:9). And not just his son and his grandson
Excerpted from this M.Y. question:
Gemara Kiddushin 29-30 discusses the 6 obligations a father has to his sons.
1 Bris, 2 Redeem the firstborn, 3 Teach him Torah, 4 find a wife for him, 5 teach him a parnassah, 6 (some say) to teach him to swim
(#3 is an overlap of what Ramba"m states)