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Orach Chaim 582:9 - The Rama brings in the name of the Tur that on Rosh Hashana one should bless his friend & family לשנה טובה תכתב. Be'er Hataiv says that one should say לשנה טובה תכתב ותחתם.

Now in many Siddurim & Machzorim it says to wish לשנה טובה תכתב ותחתם לאלתר לחיים טובים ולשלום. What is the source for adding on the words לאלתר לחיים טובים ולשלום?

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    Surmising - The word "L'alter" means "immediately". I'm willing to bet this notion is related to the concept that tzadikim who have more mitzvoth than aveirot are immediately written in Sefer Hachaim, w/o having to wait until after Yom Kippur for the "decision". Thus, the wish conveys the idea that G-d considers you a tzadik who has more mitzvoth, and will inscribe you immediately. Can you provide a link or cite which Machzor has this? – DanF Aug 26 '15 at 16:24
  • Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/10339 – msh210 Aug 26 '15 at 16:28
  • OOps. I misread the first word. I thought you asked "Why", not "Who". – DanF Aug 26 '15 at 16:38
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Luach Hahalachos Uminhagim - 5771 page 30 - note 13 says this is based on the Chayai Adam 139:5 & Elef Hamagain 40

Chayai Adam 139:5 says that one should say תכתב ותחתם לאלתר לחיים טובים

Elef Hamagain 40 says one should add Ulishilom

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