Almost every Chasidic court will have most of its male Chasidim (and sometimes entire families) come to the Rebbe for Yom Tov.
Belz has over 7,000 families, for example, most of which will try be in Kiryat Belz in Jerusalem for special days. (Source). My guess would be some 30,000 males converging there.
While not a clear-cut case of Jewish communities per se, many Yeshivot have thousands of Alumni who come pray at their Alma Mater for Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippour. Examples would include Ponevezh in Bnei Brak, and Chevron and Kol Torah in Jerusalem.
By the way, I object to your use of the word pilgrimage to go to a cemetery in Uman for Yom Tov. Pilgrimage is defined as:
1. A journey made to a sacred place, or a religious journey.
2. by extension A visit to any site revered or associated with a meaningful event.