Generally, in my experience, the same people recite kaddish d'rabbanan and kaddish yatom in davening. [Kaddish yatom is said after reciting psukim, such as a perek of Tehillim, while kaddish d'rabbanan is said after reading Mishnaic/Talmudic statements.] However, in the morning [teen] minyan i've been going to recently, i've noticed that often the gabbai will ask one of the other adults to say kaddish d'rabbanan but not kaddish yatom. Noone else says either kaddish.
(This is nusach Sefard, so the order at the end of davening (after kaddish shalem) goes shir shel yom, kaddish yatom, ein kelokeinu etc, kaddish d'rabbanan, barchu, aleinu, kaddish yatom.)

What's the difference between the two kaddishes, and why would someone say one but not the other?

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    Are you asking why someone who isn't a mourner would try to avoid kaddish yasom but not kaddish d'rabbanan? – Fred Jul 22 '15 at 21:09
  • @Fred I'm actually not sure of their status. If they are a mourner, why not say kaddish yatom? If they aren't, why say kaddish d'rabbanan? – Scimonster Jul 22 '15 at 21:10
  • Is the person saying Kaddish D'rabanan a non-mourner? Is he a rabbi or Talmid Chacham? In many Chaba"d shuls I've attended, they ask someone to read a Mishnah at the end of davening, and he is the only one who says Kaddish D'Rbanan. I've never asked, but I assume the one saying it has yahrtzeit which seems to carry a more important "status" then the other year-long mourners. I don't know why that is. Could this be what's happening in your shul? – DanF Jul 22 '15 at 21:11
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    No time for sources now, but they are probably following the view that one can say the D'Rabbanan kaddish without asking parental permission, but not the Yasom one, and that someone should say the Kaddish if possible. Given that this is a teen minyan it seems possible that everyone there has living parents. @DanF, in Chabad shuls all mourners say that last Kaddish, but they don't add it absent a mourner. – Yishai Jul 22 '15 at 21:40

To expand on the previous answer (based on the minhag of the various shuls that I have davened in), Kaddish Yasom is only said by someone who is currently a chiyuv. That is within the first 11 months (an aveil) or on a yahrtzeit. Kaddish DeRabbanan can be said by anyone who has lost a parent even if he is not currently a chiyuv.

@MichaelKatz points out that there are minhagim that allow someone who has not lost a parent to say Kaddish D'Rabbanan as well. Most shuls that I have been in will have (for example) someone who has lost a parent say the Kaddish D'Rabbanan before Pesukei Dezimrah even if he is not currently in aveilus or on a yahrtzeit. I do not have the details on that.

That would be why any adult could say the kaddish at your teen minyon.

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    Kaddish d'Rabbanan can be said even by someone who has not lost a parent, as far as I know. – MichaelKatz Jul 24 '15 at 15:29

Excerpt from Jewish Virtual Library:

Kaddish was not originally said by mourners, but rather by the rabbis when they finished giving sermons on Sabbath afternoons and later, when they finished studying a section of midrash or aggada. This practice developed in Babylonia where most people understood only Aramaic and sermons were given in Aramaic so Kaddish was said in the vernacular. This is why it is currently said in Aramaic. This "Rabbinical Kaddish" (Kaddish d'Rabbanan) is still said after studying midrash or aggada or after reading them as part of the service. It differs from the regular Kaddish because of its inclusion of a prayer for rabbis, scholars and their disciples. While anyone may say this Kaddish, it has become the custom for mourners to say the Rabbinical Kaddish in addition to the Mourner's Kaddish.

In most shuls I've attended, all mourners say this as well as the Kaddish Yatom, as suggested in the above quote. I can't say why your shul gives Kaddish D'Rabbanan to someone else. Perhaps, in line with the original concept mentioned above, the shul wants to give Kaddish D'Rbanan to a notable Rav or Talmid Chacham. Maybe the person who's saying it is the one who gave or will give the Daf Yomi shi'ur?

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  • No, it's the kaddish d'rabbanan at the end of davening (nusach Sefard). – Scimonster Jul 22 '15 at 21:10
  • Nope, not someone giving a shiur. This is the teen minyan, but the kaddish is said by one of the adults who go. – Scimonster Jul 22 '15 at 21:20
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    @DanF I don't think the circumstance is where the gabbai "gave" the kaddish to a particular person. Someone just decided to say it because there should be a kaddish at that point and people have the opportunity to respond. That person may have both parents alive and therefore chooses not to recite the mourner's kaddish. – MichaelKatz Jul 22 '15 at 21:40
  • @MichaelKatz Actually, usually the gabbai does ask one of the adults to say it, but just whoever's there, not necessarily a recognized rabbi or scholar. – Scimonster Jul 22 '15 at 21:56
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    @Scimonster You may want to move the comments regarding who says it and which Kaddish as an edit to your question. That info would have saved some "chatter". At any rate, I can't say why the rabbi doesn't just let all mourners say Kaddish D'Rabbanan as many shuls do, from what I have seen. Perhaps, that shul or the rav has a different minhag or reasoning. Best idea - ask the rav, directly, why he does this. Then, post your rav's response here, and we can all learn something and vote on it, too! – DanF Jul 23 '15 at 3:02

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