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The Gemara in Shabbos (116b) seems to have two quotes from the New Testament, but I'm not sure.

ברא וברתא כחדא ירתון - sons and daughters should inherit together

and

אנא לא למיפחת מן אורייתא דמשה אתיתי [ולא] לאוספי על אורייתא דמשה אתיתי - I am not coming to subtract or add to the Law of Moses

Does anyone know what source the Gemara is quoting?

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    It wouldn't surprise me if that's the source. Rashi calls the "philosopher" a מין (heretic), which often refers to the early Christians. – Scimonster Jul 12 '15 at 11:20
  • It's also after a short Gemara (censored from our Gemaras, but brought in Chesronos hashas and Oz Vehadar) about the New Testament. But I'm curious what context it was said in the New Testament. – clum Jul 12 '15 at 11:25
  • @clum see here for the use of the term "New Testament". – Avrohom Yitzchok Jul 12 '15 at 11:51
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    As the brackets in your quote indicate, some early versions of the gemara had "elah" instead of "vlo" saying "rather to add" and not "not to add" which would change the nature of the quote and possibly the source. – rosends Jul 12 '15 at 12:16
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    See here with comments judaism.stackexchange.com/questions/60044/… – user6591 Jul 12 '15 at 12:49
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The second quote is based on the Sermon of the Mount, from the Christian gospel book of Matthew (5:17). As to the first quote, the Soncino writes that "There is no passage in any known Gospel that a son and daughter inherit alike."

Modern religious (eg., Steinsaltz) and academic scholars understand the philosopher living near Imma Shalom, who is quoted in the story on Shabbat 116b, as being a Christian sectarian. Writing about the atmosphere of Christian and Jewish polemics in his work Birkat HaMinim: Jews and Christians in Conflict in the Ancient World, Yaakov Teppler presents another indication as to the religious identity of this individual from the text itself. On the philosopher's remark that "Since the day you were exiled from your land, the Torah of Moses was taken away and the avon gilyon was given in its place," Teppler comments:

The Gospel is presented in this source as avon gilyon. This is a scornful play on the Greek word for the gospel, evangelion [the derivation of the English word evangelical]. Avon means sin in Hebrew, so that avon gilyon would be the scripture of sinners, or a scripture which represents the way of a sin.

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    +1. I suspect that the corrupt "philosopher" judge in the story was basing the first quote on Galatians 3:28: "There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female..." – Fred Jul 12 '15 at 19:01

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