In Hilchos Shabbos there is a rule called bishul achar afia (the opinion of the R'eim, cited in Tur O.C. 318 and Shulchan Aruch 318:5 and brought as the minhag by the Rema) which means, basically, that heating through an air medium and a liquid medium are two different types of heating, and applying one to a food item even after the other has been applied may constitute a violation of Shabbos through cooking.

Is there such a rule in bishul akum? If a Gentile takes baked bread and deep-fries it, does it become prohibited as having been cooked by the Gentile?

Does the fact that it is edible as a result of the first type of heating before the second type of heating was applied to it make it considered "edible raw"? I.e. before it was ever baked, it wasn't edible, but before it was boiled/fried, it was edible as a result of the baking. So do we look at the food as it is immediately before cooking it, or as a type of food which isn't eaten raw?

1 Answer 1


From siff 4 in Orach Chaim 318 we see that there is a problem to cook something which has been salted.

Being so, there is a siman in Yoreh Deah which should suffice to answer your question.

In siman 113 siff 12 the Mechaber writes: Small fish which were salted ether by a Jew or non-Jew (it wouldn't matter as salting is not subject to bishul akum, Taz #12) are considered partially cooked (being that they are now edible Taz ad loc.), so if a non-Jew cooks the fish now, they are allowed.

However, big fish which are salted are only eaten uncooked under extenuating circumstances, therefore if a non-Jew cooks them after being salted, they are not allowed, and there are those who allow it.

Ramma adds that any food which is only eaten under extenuating circumstances would have this same Halakha if a non-Jew cooks it.

So getting back to your case, let's parallel bake then cook to salt then cook. If it was edible at the baked stage, the non-Jew will affect nothing by cooking it afterwards. If it is only baked to a degree that it is not normally eaten, the non-Jew will in fact cause it to become assur by cooking it according to the main opinion in the Mechaber and Ramma.

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