The roots of meditation come from the Creator, like all things. This is understood from the line in Tehillim (147:19), "He told His words to Yaacov and His judgements to Yisrael."
The Torah teachings on the type of meditation you are referring to are extensive and are still available today. There are schools in Israel and even individuals available online who might be able to help you in this area, like for example Rabbi Ariel Bar Tzadok at koshertorah.com.
For someone limited to English, the three books by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan are a good place to start. They are titled, "Meditation and the Bible", Meditation and Kabbalah" and "Jewish Meditation". As memory serves, the publisher was Weiser Press and it is probably available through Amazon.
Like is found in Mishnah Torah, Hilchot Yesodei HaTorah at the beginning, each individual is required to "know" and "believe" that there is a first cause that this cause is the Creator of all.
This "knowing" aspect relates to that type of meditation which is associated with individual intellectual and emotional capacity. Generally, "knowing" is through thought, speech and action. It also has the implication of the connection of the spiritual with the physical, material plane of existence. This is because the word "know" in Hebrew (da'at) also has the meaning of connection, as in Adam "knew" Chava.
In fact, this is also the meaning of the word "mitzvah". It means "connection" ('tzavtah' in Hebrew, as found in Likkutei Torah, parshat Bechukotai 55:3). In other words, G-d's immanence in all aspects of creation, that there is no "place" devoid of "Him".
The "belief" aspect is associated with that type of meditation which transcends the finite qualities of ones self, meaning relating to the innermost aspect of soul or what the Torah says is "a piece of G-d above" (in Hebrew, 'chelek Elokah Mi'Me'al).
The daily requirement in halacha for meditation is associated with the recital of the Shema (Shulchan Aruch HaRav, Orach Chaim 60:5, 61:1, 63:5, 183:5). Minimally, the first two lines of Shema are to be said with "intention" morning and evening. What each individuals capacity is to fulfill that varies. But the intended meaning is that for someone with greater capacity, they are to meditate much more deeply. What is expected from a child is different from an adult and each and every individual is according to how they have been measured "Above".
And that is only the starting place. There are specific visualizations, and breathing patterns, what could be described as 'mantras', and even postures. Each enables greater connection, called "devekut" with the Creator.
In addition, lifestyle impacts ones effectiveness in meditation. The commandments one fulfills, what one eats, level of ritual "purity", types of clothing and the varying times of day, month and year impact on meditation. Geographic location also has its impact, beneficially or not. In other words, some things make the connection with the Creator more effective and are more conducive to the process, while others hinder. But it is important to keep in mind that these details only relate to that aspect of meditation which is associated with the finite, "knowing" side of the process.
To really open the door to this side of Jewish life requires learning Hebrew. It is the keys to the Kingdom and the foundation upon which everything is built. The written sources in Hebrew are extensive and show an uninterrupted tradition going back for 5775 years, all the way to the first "book" given to Adam HaRishon called "Sefer Raziel HaMalach" or "Sefer Toldot Adam HaRishon".