Do keilim (eating utensils) bought from an artisan who is a ger toshav (observant non-Jew) require tevilah (ritual immersion)? Conversely, what if the artisan is a meshumad (Jewish idolator/heretic)?

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    Logically, a ger toshav is still not a Jew. Tevilas kailim is required whenever it is bought from a nonJew. This applies no matter who the nonJew is. Commented Apr 29, 2015 at 9:50

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Regarding the ger toshav, it makes sense that it should be considered like a goy as the reason the Yerushalmi brings for טבילת כלים is "לפי שיצאו מטומאת הגוי ונכנסו לקדושת ישראל": They left the tumah of a goy and went into the holiness of a Jew. I also found in מסורת משה that someone asked Moshe Feinstein this question and he replied that their vessels do require tevila.

The status of a meshumad is a complex matter. Firstly, the achronim deliberate on the precise definition of a meshumad concerning immersion (tevilah). Many do not consider someone who publicly desecrates the Shabbos enough to be considered as a meshumad, but rather someone entirely detached from Judaism. Certain authorities, like the חתם סופר, attempt to provide evidence from the fact that a meshumad does not require immersion when undergoing teshuva, unlike a non-Jew.

Igros Moshe, rules that immersion is not necessary.

See תשורת שי (סימן ק"ג), שבט הלוי (ח"ו סי' רמ"ה אות ג'), ואגרו"מ א"ח ח"ג סי' ד

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