In this question and answer Why are there different intro. prayers for calling the Kohen aliyah on Shabbat vs. weekday? there seems to be a question remaining as to when the prayers of ותגלה ותראה עלינו בזמן קרוב and ויעזור ויגן ויושיע which are said to call up the Kohain was composed. Who composed these prayers and in what time period were they composed?
Beurei Hatefilah mentions two versions emanating from Siddur Rav Amram Ga'on , which includes an overall longer version than the version found in Art Scroll / Birnbaum Ashkenaz (Some siddurim include parts of Rav Amram's version esp. for Shabbat pre-Kohen aliyah.) You will notice that his version has mainly psukim and just the last, brief words of הכל הבו גודל לאלקינו ותנו כבוד לתורה. (Sidebar - very poetic, but curious why the first word is הבו and the 2nd is תנו - both mean "give".)
The other version, from Machzor Vitri mentions the phrase, תגלה, etc. Interestingly enough, he mentions to say this on Shabbat Shacharit.
I can't say where the shorter version that Ashkenazim now use on Shabbat staring with ויעזור comes from. Perhaps, I can locate this, and if so, will edit, later.
If you can, read the whole article as much of it explains Talmud Baba Kama as to not just why the Torah is read specifically on Mon. & Thurs. & Shabbat afternoon, and how the concept of saying any prayers before Torah reading began.