In contemporary times, HaShem's hashgacha over everything is a common hashkafah, at least in the Litvish/Chassidic communities (see Baal Shem Tov, Aruch HaShulchan, Rav Dessler 'Strive for Truth', Ramchal 'Daas vTevunos', etc.).
This of course is in contrast to the Rambam and the Ramban, who hold Aristotlean influenced views (or so i've heard), and for sure at least SEEMINGLY (i've seen them mitaretzed) opposing views.
This question is not to compare/contrast the view points or to explain either of them, but rather to provide any information about other Rishonim that may have held views akin to the Baal Shem Tov etc.
Note: I (think I) remember seeing that Rabbeinu Yonah did in fact hold like the Baal Shem Tov, but I can't remember what I saw or where I saw it.
Also, anything from the Zohar would also interest me.