Who knows ten?
Please cite/link your sources, if possible. At some point on Chol Hamo'ed, I will:
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The minhag is to place 10 pieces of bread while doing Bedikas Chametz... See Bedikas Chometz - 10 pieces of bread
Ten are the pedigrees of Israel
Ten are the sons of Binyamin. Bereishis 46:21
Ten are the Ten Declarations!
You want to count The Commandments? Wait about 603 business days.
And get off my lawn.
There are 10 places in Tanach where the letter "א" Aleph is immediately followed by another "א" Aleph in the same word.
1 - Breishis 12:3 אאר
2 - Yeshayahu 45:5 - אאזרך
3 - Yeshayahu 48:9 - אאריך
4 - Micha 2:12 - אאסף
5 - Iyov 6:11 - אאריך
6 - Iyov 9:16 - אאמין
7 - Iyov 16:5 - אאמצכם
8 - Iyov 33:33 - ואאלפך
9 - Daniel 4:12 - בדתאא
10 - Daniel 4:20 - בדתאא
Ten is the number of the Lost Tribes of Israel, who were exiled to Assyria because of their misdeeds. (II Kings 17:6)
The Talmud (Sanhedrin 110b) brings several opinions concerning the eventual fate of these tribes. According to Rabbi Akiva, they will never return. According to Rabbi Eliezer, they will indeed return to the Land of Israel eventually. In the view of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehudah, the fate of the tribes depends on whether or not they repent.
The entire daf is quite interesting; I'd suggest looking at it for further reading.
10 - upon marriage, 10 is the number of things a man is obligated to provide for his wife (Shulchan Aruch, Even Haezer 69:1-2)
Number of words used to count a minyon in Tehillim 28:9
הוֹשִׁיעָה אֶת עַמֶּךָ וּבָרֵךְ אֶת נַחֲלָתֶךָ וּרְעֵם וְנַשְּׂאֵם עַד הָעוֹלָם
10 - are the principles that the Torah requires to effect a halachik divorce (Rambam, Hilchos Geirushin 1:1).
1) That a man must voluntarily initiate the divorce. (ibid 1:2)
2) The method of divorce must be done in writing and nothing else. (ibid 1:3)
3) That subject of the get must make clear that the husband is divorcing his wife and releasing her from his domain. (ibid 1:5)
4) The essence of the text of the get should express the severing of the connection between the husband and wife. (ibid 1:3)
5) That get must be written l'shma- ie specifically for her. (ibid 1:3)
6) After the get is written, it must not require any other action except delivery to the woman (For example: writing a get on the horn of a cow and then detaching said horn and giving it as a get would be invalid). (ibid 1:6)
7) The husband must give/ transfer over the get to her. (ibid 1:3)
8) The husband must give her the get in the presence of witnesses. (ibid 1:13)
9) The husband must give her the get for the sake of divorce. (ibid 1:9)
10) The husband or his agent must be the one who gives her the get. (ibid 1:3)
(the rest of the requirements of a get- ie the date, the signature of the witnesses, etc- are all mi'drabanan)
In the current Nusach Ashkenaz, the word מנוחה of some form is mentioned ten times in Shabbos Mincha. As for significance, well, that’s already been asked.