A newcomer to traditional Jewish prayer is often confused or overwhelmed by modern siddurim, in particular those of Artscroll, which contain a number of prayers that are required, and not said by most people. People often are unsure which parts they can or should skip. Lack of clarity about this issue can lead to transgression. For example, some may be of the mistaken impression that reciting korbanos is not required (while in fact at least the Tamid section is an obligation).
For these reasons, I thought it would be useful for many people to list the following parts of Shacharit, and ask for each of them, whether it is A) said by all Orthodox Jewish men as part of Shacharit, B) said by most Orthodox Jewish men, C) said by some, D) if it is said only or particularly by a certain group or groups, then name that group, and E) if the part is considered an obligation, and if so, the source for the fact that it is an obligation.
This list is in order of appearance in the Artscroll siddur. Parts that are clearly required (morning blessings, Baruch SheAmar, etc, are omitted).
1 Reishit Chochma
2 Barchi Nafshi
3 Mah Yakar Chasdcha Elokim
4 Mah tovu
7 L'olam y'he adam yrey shamayim
8 Ribon kol haolamim
9 Aval anachnu
10 L'fichach anachnu
11 First paragraph of the Shma (as part of the morning blessings)
12 Atah hu ad shelo nivra haolam
13 Korbanos (other than Tamid)
14 Mizmor Shir Chanukat haHaBayit
15 Hodu LaHashem Kiru Vishmo
16 Yehi kavod Hashem l'olam
17 Baruch Hashem l'olam, amen v'amen
18 Vayvarech David et Hashem l'einei kol kahal
19 Atah hu Hashem l'vadecha
20 Shirat HaYam
21 Yehi ratzon milfanecha (after oseh shalom after the end of the Amidah)
22 Song of the day