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Does anyone know of a source with an account of what happened each day of the journey from Yetzias Mitzrayim to Har Sinai?

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    I'm assuming from your tag that this is an attempt to tie each days event to a specific theme relevant to the sefirat ha'omer? – Isaac Kotlicky Mar 30 '15 at 0:35
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    @IsaacKotlicky His username might be another hint. Welcome to Mi Yodeya, Mr. Counter! – Y     e     z Mar 30 '15 at 1:45
  • Related: mi.yodeya.com/q/56935 – msh210 Mar 30 '15 at 17:00
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According to Seder Olam Rabbah ch. 5, with an assist from other sources where noted. Note that the chronology surrounding Har Sinai is a dispute recorded in Shabbos 86b-88a; the chronology presented in Seder Olam follows the opinion of the Rabbis, and where I cite from this passage in the list below accordingly follows their view.

As is discussed here, some of the dates don't seem to work with each other; below I've presented the Vilna Gaon's understanding of how the Braisa should be read.

  • Thursday, 14 Nissan: Bnei Yisrael shechted their Karbanos Pesachim
  • Thursday night, 15 Nissan: Makkas Bechoros
  • Friday, 15 Nissan: Bnei Yisrael traveled from Ra'amses to Sukkos
  • Shabbos, 16 Nissan: Bnei Yisrael traveled from Sukkos to Eisam
  • Sunday, 17 Nissan: Bnei Yisrael traveled from Eisam to Pi HaChiros
  • Monday, 18 Nissan: Spies report to Paroh that Bnei Yisrael fled
  • Tuesday-Wednesday, 19-20 Nissan: Paroh chases Bnei Yisrael
  • Wednesday night, 21 Nissan: Bnei Yisrael enter the Yam Suf
  • Thursday, 21 Nissan: Bnei Yisrael leave the Yam Suf, and the Mitzri'im are drowned; Bnei Yisrael sing
  • Friday-Sunday, 22-24 Nissan: Bnei Yisrael travel to Marah (Shemos 15:22)
  • ???: Bnei Yisrael travel to Eilim
  • Sunday, 15 Iyar: Bnei Yisrael travel to Alush in Midbar Sin
  • Sunday night, 16 Iyar: The slav falls
  • Monday, 16 Iyar: The mann falls for the first time
  • Monday night-Tuesday, 17 Iyar: Some of Bnei Yisrael left over extra mann, and it rotted (Shemos 16:20)
  • Friday, 20 Iyar: Bnei Yisrael are surprised by the double portion of mann; Moshe explains Shabbos to them (Shemos 16:22-23)
  • Shabbos, 21 Iyar: Bnei Yisrael (mostly) observe their first Shabbos
  • Sunday, 22 Iyar: Bnei Yisrael travel to Refidim
  • ???: Bnei Yisrael receive the Well of Miriam
  • Maybe Friday-Shabbos, 27-28 Iyar?: Battle with Amalek
  • Monday, 1 Sivan: Bnei Yisrael arrive at Har Sinai (Shemos 19:1)
  • Tuesday, 2 Sivan: Moshe receives his first communication from Hashem at Har Sinai, "And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation." (Shabbos 87a)
  • Wednesday, 3 Sivan: Hashem commands Moshe to cordon off Har Sinai (Shabbos 87a)
  • Thursday, 4 Sivan: Husbands and wives separated from each other (Shabbos 87a)
  • Shabbos, 6 Sivan: The Torah was given

R' Yosi, who argues on the Chachamim, has the following timeline, wherein he only argues regarding the events in the week of receiving the Torah. R' Yosi's account necessitates that Iyar was 29 days, while the Chachamim's necessitates that Iyar was 30 days.

  • Shabbos, 29 Iyar: Bnei Yisrael leave Refidim (according to Rava, Shabbos 87b)
  • Iyar only had 29 days that year (Shabbos 87b)
  • Sunday, 1 Sivan: Bnei Yisrael leave Refidim (according to Rav Acha bar Yaakov, Shabbos 87b); Bnei Yisrael arrive at Har Sinai (Shemos 19:1)
  • Monday, 2 Sivan: Moshe receives his first communication from Hashem at Har Sinai, "And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation." (Shabbos 87a)
  • Tuesday, 3 Sivan: Hashem commands Moshe to cordon off Har Sinai (Shabbos 87a)
  • Wednesday, 4 Sivan: Husbands and wives separated from each other (Shabbos 87a)
  • Shabbos, 7 Sivan: The Torah was given (Shabbos 86b)
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    If anyone can help out with the three ambiguous dates, that would be greatly appreciated! – DonielF Apr 2 at 1:46

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