There are many verses in the Talmud, Midrash and Siddur that state that the sun and moon rise and set through gates in the firmament. This would imply that there are no time-zones. To this world view the sun & the moon rises and sets everywhere in the world at the same time. I'm looking for a refutation.
(I dont think that this section of in Shabbat 118b is such an example:
Said R. Yossi: Might my portion be among those who receive the Shabbat in Tibberias and close it on Zippori"
Rashi states on the spot that Tibberias is low-land and Zippori is in the top of a mountain, so the light there is brighter and they wait more in closing the Shabbat. Thus, this passage recognizes the effects of elevation, not longitude.)
Is there any discussion in the Talmud (Tanaim and Amoraim only) that takes the concept of longitude-based differences in local time into account?