A follow up to this M.Y. question :
The answer there (so far), addresses the source of the term, in general and cites Talmud Shabbat which seems to address the importance of lighting Shabbat candles. I believe that the Talmud explains either there or somewhere else that the "peace" created in the house is that by having light, people in the household won't trip over each other in the dark.
The term "Shalom Bayit", now, seems to mean "matrimonial harmony" - i.e. peace and calm between husband and wife. This definition does not seem to emanate from the Talmud - at least not from the location cited.
Where, when and how did this definition arise?