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Suppose a landowner is a jerk and is sick of poor people harvesting the corner of his field. (The mitzva of Peya)

If he were to consecrate his crops/field to the Temple, they would be hekdesh and the poor would not be able to take them.

Can the Temple refuse this consecration, forcing the landowner to allow the poor on his land?

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    Shas speaks in a number of places about a person who is makdish and podeh his own field after the point when agricultural laws like peah and ma'aser would normally apply. Such a person is required to add an additional chomesh (fifth, but technically 25% since he's paying 125% of the price) to redeem the field, a penalty to prevent just such behavior. – Isaac Kotlicky Feb 18 '15 at 1:28
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    @IsaacKotlicky Chomesh applies in all cases not just here. Hard to imagine it as a penalty for this specific case – Double AA Feb 18 '15 at 6:31
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    Chomesh is a knas applied to one redeeming his own property from hekdesh. It's not about "refusing" to accept someone's hekdesh, but it is a penalty to keep people from frivolously declaring their items as hekdesh. One of the reasons a person might do so is to sneak around agricultural laws. – Isaac Kotlicky Feb 18 '15 at 11:38
  • A large portion of Arachin is dedicated to figuring out how Hekdesh can get rid of property it doesn't want. That would imply to me that they can't just refuse it. – Yitzchak Feb 18 '15 at 18:09
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    Somewhat related source Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 177:3. It mentions that a Kohen is allowed to deny receiving a priestly gift if it is given with malicious intent (i.e. specific intent to harm the Kohen). While not entirely comparable to this question (presumably, whatever is being donated to Hekdesh is still useful for Hekdesh), it may be a useful springboard for further reading. – Salmononius2 Oct 24 '18 at 13:59
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I've never seen a position that the Temple can refuse Hekdesh.

Regarding your scenario, it's an explicit Mishna in Pe'ah 4:7 that - if he consecrated his field before harvesting and the harvest was done while it was Hekdesh - the poor are not entitled to the Pe'ah, even if he then redeems it himself:

הִקְדִּישׁ קָמָה וּפָדָה קָמָה, חַיָּב. עֳמָרִין וּפָדָה עֳמָרִין, חַיָּב. קָמָה וּפָדָה עֳמָרִין, פְּטוּרָה, שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת חוֹבָתָהּ הָיְתָה פְטוּרָה:‏

One who dedicated standing crop [to the Temple] and redeemed it, he is obligated [to give Peah]. One who dedicated cut sheaves and redeemed them, he is obligated. [One who] dedicated standing crop and redeemed [after it became] cut sheaves, he is exempt, for at the time that it would have become obligated, it was exempt.

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