Imagine someone make a neder not to eat pork (this is not a general Neder not to eat meat rather specifically prohibiting pork which is already forbidden). Is that neder valid?

If he then eats pork, is he also responsible for not respecting his neder or only for transgressing Halakha of not eating pig?


The Gemara in Sh'vuos 22b:

שבועה שלא אוכל, ואכל נבילות וטריפות, שקצים ורמשים - חייב, ור' שמעון פוטר; והוינן בה, אמאי חייב? מושבע ועומד מהר סיני הוא! רב ושמואל ור' יוחנן דאמרי: בכולל דברים המותרין עם דברים האסורין

Someone swears not to eat, and they eat forbidden foods, they are responsible [for violating their oath]. Why are they responsible for their oath? They are already responsible for this from Har Sinai! Rav Shmuel and R' Yochanan said: because he included permissible things with the forbidden things.

An oath that only includes things that are already forbidden is not valid, because he is already "sworn" into not doing these things. There are various exceptions, such as if his oath takes effect because it includes things that are not already forbidden from Har Sinai.

  • 2
    A Shevua isn't a neder – Shmuel Brin Feb 13 '15 at 21:26
  • 1
    look at Nedarim 8a where it says you can make a shavua see answer bellow, this that you are referring in shavuos is only with regards to the fact he is not over on shevuas bitui by transgressing the mitzva as he has already made a shavua at mont sinai. – user15464 Oct 4 '17 at 1:53

A person Can make a neder to make the pork ossur (prohibited) to eat for himself and it works and is not a superfluous neder.

The source is Nedarim 8a:

מנין שנשבעין לקיים את המצוה שנאמר נשבעתי ואקיימה לשמור משפטי צדקך והלא מושבע ועומד מהר םיני תוא אלא דשרי ליה לאיניש לזרתי נפשיה
How do you know you can make a shavua to fulfill a mitzva? As it says (tehillim 119) I will swear to guard your righteous mitzvos. But surely he has already sworn at mount sinai to keep the mitzvos and this should surely be a superfluous oath? It is still a valid Neder/Shevua to motivate him to do the mitzva.

The same rule applies to nedarim and Shevuos as is evident in Tosfos 8a:

כי היכי דאין שבועה חלה על שבועה ה״נ אין נדר חל על נדר קמ״ל דשרי ליה לאיניש לזרתי נפשיה לקיים המצוה

The Ran Nedarim 8a (vehalo) says he transgress an extra commandment of Bal yachel devoro - breaking his neder (as well as the existing prohibition of eating pork in your case) - שהיא חלה לגבי בל יחל

However the Ramban on the torah in parshas Chukas says:

אין חלות שאס נשבע לקיים את המצות ולא קייס אינו מתחייב -
He is not transgressing on a shavua as well by transgressing the mitzva, as he has already made a shavua at mount sinai. Therefore this shavua is purely permitted for motivation purposes.

So your second question is subject to debate between these rishonim whether transgression would incur extra punishment of Bal Yachel

  • Is that Ramban not going on shevuos, the same problem you had with the other answer? – DonielF Jun 8 '18 at 2:32

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