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Who are the ancestors of Abiather, the High Priest that shared the office with Zadok before being exiled by Solomon? Can he be traced to Aaron? Was he related to Zadok?

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    Welcome to Mi Yodeya! You should take a look at אישי התנ"ך, see if they have any info on him. You might want to think about registering your account, which will give you access to more of the site's features. – MTL Jan 20 '15 at 22:42
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    Samuel 1:22:20 tells us his grandfather was אחיטוב which, based on Samuel 1:14:3, seems to imply his great-uncle's grandfather was Eli HaKohein from the opening verses of the book of Samuel. This is confirmed by Kings 1:2:27. On the other hand, Ezra 7:2 lists an אחיטוב the father of a צדוק and Nechemia 11:11 lists such a grandfather. In other words, this is all about as scientific as trying to figure out if Yossi Schwartz is related to Menachem Mendel Schwartz. It's not surprising that Kohanim as a family would have certain names that stuck throughout the generations. – Double AA Jan 20 '15 at 22:54
  • Aviatar was the son of Ahimelech who was slaughtered by Doeg under the instruction of Shaul, and he was 3 generations down from Eli. Eli had a son called Pinchas, then Achitov, then Achimelech. There may also have been another Achitov who was an ascendent of Tzadok – CashCow Jan 21 '15 at 9:47
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Aviatar (or Abiather) was descended from Eli the prophet who was also a Kohen Gadol before him.

The lineage from the book of Shmuel is: Eli->Pinchas->Achituv->Achimelech->Aviatar.

Do not confuse the fact that there is also an Achituv in the line down to Tzadok (book of Ezra that traces his lineage as well as

Chronicles 5:30 - Eleazar begot Phinehas, Phinehas begot Abishua; 31 and Abishua begot Bukki, and Bukki begot Uzzi; 32 and Uzzi begot Zerahiah, and Zerahiah begot Meraioth; 33 Meraioth begot Amariah(I), and Amariah(I) begot Ahitub(I); 34 and Ahitub(I) begot Zadok(I) and Zadok(I) begot Ahimaaz; 35 and Ahimaaz begot Azariah(I), and Azariah(I) begot Johanan; 36 and Johanan begot Azariah (II)—he it is that executed the priest’s office in the house that Solomon built in Jerusalem—: 37 and Azariah(II) begot Amariah(II), and Amariah(II) begot Ahitub(II); 38 and Ahitub(II) begot Zadok(II),

The text seems rather strange as there are 4 generations between Zadok (I) and Azariah (II) that is the one claimed to have executed the office in the Temple. And then there are 3 more generations to Zadok (II). And is the text here to indicate that the first Azariah (2 generations before) did not execute the Priest's office (Kohen Gadol)

Chronicles (I) chapter 24 describes how the Kohen Gadol role was shared for a period between the sons of Elazar and the sons of Ithamar. And also that Ahimelech and others were clearly from the line of Ithamar:

I Chronicles Chapter 24 1 And the courses of the sons of Aaron were these. The sons of Aaron: Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 2 But Nadab and Abihu died before their father, and had no children; therefore Eleazar and Ithamar executed the priest’s office. 3 And David with Zadok of the sons of Eleazar, and Ahimelech of the sons of Ithamar, divided them according to their ordering in their service. 4 And there were more chief men found of the sons of Eleazar than of the sons of Ithamar; and thus were they divided: of the sons of Eleazar there were sixteen, heads of fathers’houses; and of the sons of Ithamar, according to their fathers’houses, eight. 5 Thus were they divided by lot, one sort with another; for they were princes of the sanctuary and princes of God, both of the sons of Eleazar, and of the sons of Ithamar. 6 And Shemaiah the son of Nethanel the scribe, who was of the Levites, wrote them in the presence of the king, and the princes, and Zadok the priest, and Ahimelech the son of Abiathar, and the heads of the fathers’houses of the priests and of the Levites: one father’s house being taken for Eleazar, and proportionately for Ithamar

Ahimelech there is listed as a son of Aviatar, not his father, and we know Aviatar had a son called Jonathan but may have also had a son called Ahimelech.

Of course being Kohanim they were both descended from Aharon. Eli was actually descended from Aharon's 4th son Ithamar (Chronicles). The line of Eliezer / Pinchas became unworthy after a period and therefore the title of Kohen Gadol which isn't guaranteed to be passed from father to son.

In the book of Shmuel, there is a curse placed on Eli and all his descendents, and bad things start to happen to them, including the destruction of the whole town of Nov, from which Aviatar is the only survivor.

In the book of Kings when Solomon sends Aviatar back to his home town there is a pasuk that tells how the curse of Eli was now fulfilled.

Note that the lineage from Pinchas (ben Elazar) down to Ezra might not be complete, i.e. he may have missed out some of the names in between. I read in a commentary that there were some gaps at the point where the less worthy Kohanim were.

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    Sources on these? – Charles Koppelman Jan 21 '15 at 15:42
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    @CashCow, every answer on Mi Yodeya should be as useful as possible to readers who are looking for answers to the question it addresses. A very basic aspect of a useful answer is that it cites and preferably also links to (when available online) its sources, making it as convenient as possible for the reader to verify its assertions and also learn more. Citing sources also helps community members who evaluate (vote on) and improve (edit) answers for the benefit of readers to determine whether an answer's assertions are accurate. – Isaac Moses Jan 21 '15 at 16:02
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    Cash Cow, I've noticed that you've left comments on your posts, clearly addressing several users, but notifying none of them. If you want to be sure that someone will see your response to their comment on your post, you should write their username, preceded by the @ symbol. I'm not sure that @IsaacMoses say your response to his comment. See meta.judaism.stackexchange.com/q/2067/5323 for more info. – MTL Jan 21 '15 at 19:47
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    @Shokhet thanks; I didn't. CashCow, it's not a matter of checking some box to demonstrate that you know the answer; please try to make your answers as useful as possible. – Isaac Moses Jan 21 '15 at 19:53
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    @CashCow Try these. For Tanach, there are many great options, including Chabad.org, mechon-mamre.org, and sefaria.org – Isaac Moses Jan 22 '15 at 16:27

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