In light of the recent Charlie Hebdo incident with depictions of Mohammed (and others like), are there any punishments for derogatory depictions of our Jewish prophets and sages (be it in our times or times of yore)?
The Talmud (Sanhedrin 99b) says that one who is mevazeh a Torah Sage has no place in the World to Come.
Shulchan Aruch (Yoreh Deah 334:43) lists this as the first of 24 reasons why a person can be excommunicated, even after the Sage passed away. As discussed in the commentaries there, the Sage has to be of a certain stature for it to reach that point.
I think the reasonable translation of mevazeh is denigrate, or make something despised in people's eyes (compare with Koheles 9:16).