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The Mishna in Sanhedrin 1:5 states:

אין מוסיפין על העיר ועל העזרות, אלא על פי בית דין של שבעים ואחד.

They may not add [annex] to the city [Jerusalem] or [Temple] Courtyards, except by a court of seventy-one.

Correct me if i'm wrong, but we've been lacking a Great Sanhedrin of 71 for a while now.

The modern city of Jerusalem is much larger than the ancient city. However, even the "New City" is considered Yerushalayim. They follow the nusach of Yerushalayim, observe Shushan Purim, etc.

If the Sanhedrin never "annexed" it, how can it be part of the city?

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    We can still increase the size of the city municipality for legal/political reasons, without changing the halakha. This gemara refers to increasing the size of the city for purposes of eating maaser sheni and kodshim kalim, etc. Nusach and Shushan Purim don't depend on the "din" of "Yerushalayim" – הנער הזה Jan 7 '15 at 17:42
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Halachic Yerushalyim is indeed still the same size (eg. for Maaser Sheni purposes).

Shushan Purim is celebrated both in an ancient walled city and "adjacent" to it (Megilla 2b).

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