One opinion brought in the Beis Yosef (whom we do not hold of) is if the fast of 10 Teves came out on shabbat we would have to fast, but it cannot happen due to the setup of our calendar.

How can there be a fast day on shabbas if it has to do with mourning and tzar? There is no public mourning on shabbas. What is different about the 10th of Teves that one can show tzar on shabbas according to that opinion?

  • Why did you leave out the opinion – sam Dec 28 '14 at 17:25
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    Isn't the answer right there in the Beis Yosef? Rav David Avudarham(?) wrote that the source psauk for this fast uses the word "b'etzem" just like that of Yom Hakipurim. So, by fiat (g'zeras haKasuv) it must be observed on the given date. – WAF Dec 28 '14 at 18:47
  • It's not a straight out gezeirah shava, because everyone would need to hold of it,it seems like a proof but how does the logic work – sam Dec 28 '14 at 18:51
  • Regarding the premise of universality, see e.g. here, but more to the point, the source itself takes the d'rasha for granted apparently (top line and previous page). – WAF Dec 28 '14 at 19:02

The Chassam Soffer in Toras Moshe mahadurei kama in his drush for 7th of Adar d.h. kasuv addresses this. In short he says that just like every generation that the Beis Hamikdosh is not rebuilt is as if it was destroyed, so too every year on the tenth of Teives which was the beginning of the destruction, we are judged and a gezeira is put forth if the Beis Hamikdosh will be rebuilt this year. Therefore this is not a fast concerning past losses which are not docheh shabbos, like Tisha biAv or a yor tzeit for a parent. This is a fast for the betterment of the future which is allowed on shabbos, like a taanis chalom, which by fasting makes a person feel better for the future.

See also in his drashos page 99b in the second column d.h. vial davar zeh.

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    Nice answer,will look it up – sam Dec 28 '14 at 17:38
  • @User6591: Can you send me a link for this? – Chiddushei Torah Dec 31 '14 at 20:45

I read a few years ago, possibly it was in one of the Chaba"d L'Chaim weekly newsletters around 10 Tevet about 2-3 years ago, this concept. (I'll try to hunt down the source, but if someone can locate this, please edit my answer.)

One would think that Tish'a B'Av should get preference because that is the day that both Temples were destroyed. (Tish'a B'Av actually does occur on Shabbat as it will in a few months, HOL"T.)

However, it is the beginning of the tragedy that is actually the most notable. 10 Tevet marked the day that the walls of Jerusalem were first breached, and from that point, things got worse. The start of the tragedy is the most notable, and therefore receives the highest priority.

  • Yeah but that doesn't answer the aveilus problem on shabbas – sam Dec 29 '14 at 16:25
  • @sam - agreed, and I have to try to hunt down the article if I can find it. It may have addressed that concern. If I correctly recall, the article stated that 10 Tevet had the importance of Yom Kippur, which, effectively allowed it to be on Shabbat. Remember, that prior to Hillel 2, there were times when that did happen, and, I assume that then people fasted on Shabbat. If not, it begs the reason for raising this question in the first place, right? – DanF Dec 30 '14 at 4:17

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