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My question might be similar to other questions posted on this website;

After the creation HaShem says: Bereshit 1:31: 'And Elohim saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was tov me’od (very good).' I guess also Adam was tov me'od. But in the verse of Bereshit 2:9 it is said that HaShem Elohim made to spring up every tree pleasing to the sight, and tov for food and the Etz HaChayim (Tree of Life) also in the midst of Gan Eden, and the Etz HaDa’as Tov v’Rah (knowledge of good and evil). After eating from the fruit of the tree of good and evil, true free will, Adam (Adam and Chava) gain evil.

  1. Now i wonder did evil came in our world because of the wrong choice of Adam? Or because HaShem created it (Yeshayahu 45:7), or gave us the inclination to do good and the inclination to do evil when He gave us free will, or created the tree at least?
  2. And is it wrong to have knowledge of good and evil like the beings in the heavenly realm (Bereshit 3:22), because it seems that with this knowledge one could make the right choice (over his good or evil inclination). And if it is because of the knowledge of evil that humans may make wrong choices also, then how come that Adam who was created tov me'od didn't make the right choice, while he didn't had the knowledge of evil?

Any thoughts on this?

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  • related judaism.stackexchange.com/a/41108/4794 Commented Dec 1, 2014 at 18:53
  • When you say evil do you mean the ability to choose evil, or things that are evil? Or something else? Commented Dec 31, 2014 at 19:30
  • The ability to choose evil; if they didn't had the knownedlge, how could they choose evil ? They seem to be hold responsible for their own actions, because of the curse of the earth, the birth pain and the fact they were placed out of gan eden.
    – J.Levi
    Commented Feb 2, 2015 at 7:51
  • So then it seems that your question 1 is a duplicate of the linked question. Commented Feb 2, 2015 at 18:35
  • Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/a/130262/7303 Commented Aug 1, 2022 at 1:32

2 Answers 2

1

The short and direct answers to your questions are:

  1. Evil was created by God from the beginning to enable man to exercise free will.

  2. Knowledge of good and evil is a necessity for man to make the right choices. This is why the Torah teaches us positive and negative commandments.

Longer answer:

Your questions are ones that are common, especially by those influenced by the Christian philosophy that God is all good and that evil belongs in a separate realm (i.e. their Devil's realm). The Orthodox Jewish response to that is, of course, with a question: "Do you believe in an all-powerful God, or do you believe in separate gods for good and evil?" It should not have to be stated that Judaism completely accepts the former and rejects the evil. The view of a "limited God" unable to eliminate evil from the world, was also suggested, unfortunately, by Conservative rabbi Harold Kushner in his book "Why Bad Things Happen to Good People." It is not a legitimate Orthodox perspective according to many critics, notably Rabbi Benjamin Blech, author of "If God is Good, Why is the World So Bad" (Simcha Press 2003).

Starting off with basics. Scripture makes it clear that God created both good and evil. Isaiah 45:7 states: "Who forms light and creates darkness[?] Who makes peace and creates evil[?]; I am the Lord, Who makes all these. Man is also pre-loaded with the inclination to do good, and also the good to do evil. Deut. 30:15-20 (discussed below). Anyone who has raised a 2- or 3-year-old knows that the inclination to do evil rules over the inclination to do good, although even it also shows its face in the toddler, until the child is near the age of bar or bat mitzvah. The child psychologist will tell you that the toddler's constant demands, whining and masterly use of the word "no" serves an important function as the young child learns family and social boundaries that will guide his life. Similarly, the social misfortunes of the beta "tweenage" girl are an essential element in creating a spirit of resilliancy.

For God, the co-existence of good and bad is a practical necessity and an example of a thing on which we lack His perspective. From God's perspective, good and evil are relative terms; "what is good for the butcher is inevitably bad for the cow," one might say. As Rabbi Blech points out, God's purpose for having both good and evil exist equally in this world is to provide us with choice so that we might exercise free will. Deut. 30:15-20 states: "Behold, I have set before you today life and good, and death and evil...I have set before you life and death, the blessing and the curse. You shall choose life...." Rabbi Blech, therefore, argues that from God's perspective, the greatest good is that we choose what the Torah defines as "good" as opposed to those options the Torah defines as "evil." Sometimes, he says, God has to allow evil to rule the day so that man might choose to rebel against it.

Some people try to distinguish Isaiah 45:7 by translating the word רע as "calamaties," thereby avoiding the risk of identifying God as the creator of evil. But they don't understand. But since the word is used broadly to define both the inclination to do evil that dwells in man, as well as natural disasters, we cannot assume it to be one and not the other in the case of either Isaiah or Deuteronomy. Natural disasters and the like do have a tendency to bring out the best in some people, but so do wars, strangely enough. The stories of the Holocaust are filled with examples of amazing acts of charity, preservation of life, and honoring the Name of God, while at the same time that there exists suffering, murder, hoarding and thievery.

With regard to knowing good and evil: One tractates in the Talmud is the book of Avoda Zara -- a tome that debates and discusses various idolatrous religions -- which totals 5 chapters. There, Avoda Zara 14b, Rav Chisda states that in Abraham's day, he compiled his own book of Avoda Zarah that listed all of the customs and rituals of idolaters in his day and his book totaled more than 400 chapters. Why do we have such books? We learn it so that we can recognize idolatry -- an evil in God's eyes. We see from that God wants us to learn what is evil in the world, even if we might be contaminated by the learning to a degree.

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  • If G-d created evil from te beginning to enable man to exercise free will (to choose between good and evil; that which is not good); And if knowledge of good and evil is a necessity for man to make the right choices. Then it seems that man also has the ability to choose and make the wrong choice... is this what happened? Cause it seems that man made the wrong choice before eating from the three (and after that evil gain untill G-d brought up the mabul).
    – J.Levi
    Commented Dec 2, 2014 at 5:27
  • what's the difference between having a good and evil inclination and having knowledge of good and bad? There must be a difference because why else would G-d wanted us not to eat from the tree ?
    – J.Levi
    Commented Dec 2, 2014 at 5:34
  • Or am I totally misunderstanding the whole concept?
    – J.Levi
    Commented Dec 2, 2014 at 5:35
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God didn't create evil, he gave man a free will to choose. All Adam had to do was submit his will to Hashem Elohim so that he can be guided but he asserted his will in disobedience. You are free to make a choice but whomsoever you obey becomes your master. Adam disobeyed God and obeyed the devil. Disobedience is the root of evil and produces death. Adam now understood good but his nature has become corrupted by evil. His offspring inherited this nature, knowing what good to do but having an irresistible inclination toward evil because they are subservient to the one who now rules over them. The knowledge of the fact that they have become inherently evil by nature, made Adam look for what will cover him (hide his nature). God did not create evil (disobedience) neither did he intend for man to be a robot. He gave man a free will but Adam made a choice to become a slave. If you assert your will against the sovereign will of God then it means you must be a god, able to sustain yourself and control your circumstances.

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  • You say that "God didn't create evil". Who did create evil then and who created that entity? Commented Apr 14 at 15:26

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