I'm guessing he was not quoting verbatim and he mixed two medrashim as I will show you. He also seems to have misquoted the one you are looking for.
Here is a first quote from him.
"More deeply, the Midrash in Breshit Rabbah converts Jacob's vow from a request for supplying his needs to an obligation that he accepted upon himself toward God. Thus: If God will be with me and protect me on the path (Hebrew: haderekh) I am going means that He will preserve me from committing slander, as is said (Jeremiah 9:2), "They bend (Hebrew: vayidrekhu, from the same root) their tongues for lies."
and He will give me bread to eat means that He will preserve me from sexual transgression, in accordance with the understanding that "the bread he eats" (Genesis 39:6) alludes to sex.
and I return in peace to my father's house means I will refrain from bloodshed.
and He will be my God means He will protect me from committing idolatry."
This is a direct quote from Bereishis Rabba 70 4. The medrash ends there and there is no indication in the commentaries that there is a variant reading. So this next quote from him is a proof he was not quoting verbatim.
"Here the same midrash makes a shocking statement: “All the things that Jacob wished to refrain from came upon him." Etc. as per the quote in your question.
The commentators on that medrash send to Vayikra Rabba chapter 37. There we find a similar idea where Yaakov suffers through these things but the medrash has a different slant. I'll quote (please allow my translation) All who make a nedder and delay fulfilling it will eventually come to idol worship, promiscuity, murder and gossip. From whom do we learn this? All from Yaakov. Being that he made a nedder and delayed it, he came to all these. Idolatry, from Breishis chapter 35, and Yaakov told his family remove the foreign gods. Promiscuity from Dinah, there chapter 34, and Dinah went out. Murder, from there, and it was on the third day when they were in pain. Gossip from there chapter 31 and Yaakov heard the words of Lavan's children. And the rabbis added whoever delays his nedder will bury his wife as we see there chapter 48 and as I came from Padan Aram, Rachel died.
This Medrash is also in the Medrash Tanchuma parshas Vayishlach #8.