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As I've mentioned elsewhere, I'm currently preparing a chabura (presentation) on the laws of medical emergencies on Shabbos.

What sources discuss the halachos of medicine on Shabbos?

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This is a community wiki answer, which means that anyone with 100 reputation points or more can edit without review. Please feel free to add your own sources, keeping the structure I've set up. Also, please leave a comment regarding your addition, so that it's clear who said what :)

Gemara

  • Yoma 85a-b (which verse teaches that we violate שבת to save a life; וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם)
  • Shabbos 107b (popping pimples and containing dangerous snakes on Shabbos)
  • Shabbos 30a (extinguishing candles for patients is only for the dangerously ill, but for the חולה שאין בו סכנה extinguishing candles is פטור אבל אסור)

Rishonim

  • Rikanti 166 (some rabbis felt that treatments that will not certainly heal the patient do not supersede Shabbos/Yom Kippur; they are dead wrong [pun intended, see there ;-)])
  • Tosfos to Sukkah 26a (sv ואפילו) (danger to limb = danger to life, even for Chillul Shabbos)
  • Meiri to Shabbos 29b

Rambam

Shulchan Aruch

Recent Publications

  • Shemiras Shabbos K'hilchasa (Rabbi Yehoshua Yeshaya Neuwirth) chapters 32-41 (all laws, especially practical applications in the modern era) [ Note: some outdated technical information ]
  • Hilchos Rofim uRefuah (rulings of the Tzitz Eliezer [Rabbi Eliezer Yehudah Waldenburg] on medical halachos, compiled by Rabbi Dr. Avraham Steinberg) Sha'ar 2 (all laws, especially practical applications in the modern era)
  • Nishmas Avraham (Rabbi Dr. Abraham Abraham) Orach Chayim, in all the sections that deal with Shabbos. (all laws, especially practical applications in the modern era) [ Note: the older editions contain outdated technical information ]
  • Halachot for the Patient on the Sabbath, Festivals and Yom-Kippur (Rabbi Dr. Abraham Abraham) available in both Hebrew and English
  • Halacha uRefuah by Rav Moshe Hershler, published 1981 (h/t Yishai)

A lot of the sources came from the source sheet for this shiur by Rav Herschel Shachter, and some from the local ENT.

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