The Maharam Shik posed this question in the first teshuva on Even Ha'ezer. (See the second and third paragraphs here).
He says that the Avot wanted to have holy descendants and therefore delayed the mitzva of 'peru urvu' until the time that they could find the most suitable spouse.
Generally, one is allowed to delay the fulfilment of a mitzva if one will be able to fulfil it in a better way at a later time. However, he cites the Terumat Hadeshen to point out that this would only allow a delay of a short time, and in this case the delay was a matter of decades.
Therefore, Maharam Shik explains that usually one has to worry that something might happen in the meantime that will prevent the person doing the mitzvah. In the case of marriage, the person might die before they get married (think Nadav & Avihu). However, the Avot were guaranteed by Hashem that they would become a great nation and so that concern did not apply to them.