Let's start with Bava Metzia, ona'ah. This is interest on a loan, and verbal abuse.
Judaism generally deals with days, from my personal experience. There wasn't such a developed time system - before this position of the sun try to do this and definitely before the sun sets do this. Jewish Standard Time, Indian Standard Time, Irish Standard Time, and all the social conventions which allow us to maintain this relaxed human perspective that comes from 15 or so minutes grace period are so important with the introduction of accurate clocks.
When you rent something, you become responsible for it. For its damage, for its care - if its living you feed it, if it you still protect it. If you pay for the use of said property, there is a different level of responsibility.
We are now in the three weeks, and we are supposed to remember the destruction of the temple. Some of the explanations for its destruction are baseless hatred and not saying a bracha on learning Torah. One of the primary means of expressing baseless hatred is lashon hara, slander - but it also is encompassed by ona'ah - walking into a store with the intent not to buy anything, repeating a mistake verbally that another did.
Our words are very important. When you make an arrangement verbally with another, your words have to mean that you will fulfill them - you are probably wearing a kippah, and even if you aren't they can tell you're Jewish. Will G-d's name be slandered because you didn't keep to your arrangement? You agreed on a time, and then intended before the words left your lips not to keep to your words!!!
Yet Hashem himself is willing to erase his name in order to keep a marriage together. How could it be that your bike lender would be so upset over a few minutes unless he really needed the bike?
That is why I think our clocks, while important, shouldn't be the only ones dictating time. They are merely a tool in our houses for making sure we don't waste the time we were given.