From the TaNaKH and from the Talmud, we read about these ultimate "afterlife"-destinations, inclusive of a time-frame:
"And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake,
some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting
Death is like sleep. Just as we wake-up from sleep, we also wake-up from death.
Yochanan Ben-Zakkai said, "I have two paths before me, one of the
Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are
Dying is like walking, a continuous process of being, and therefore "after death" (upon the continuous process of being), we encounter a fork on the road, one fork leads to Gan-Eden, and the other to Gehenna.
Master of the Universe, You have judged properly, You have acquitted
properly, You have condemned properly, and it is befitting that You
have prepared Gehenna for the wicked and the Garden of Eden for the
This quote, from the Talmud, tells us the courtroom time-frame after death or "afterlife", there is judgment ("You have judged properly"), which either leads to acquittal ("You have acquitted properly") or condemnation ("You have condemned properly"). A sentence of condemnation condemns one into the hellish "Gehenna"-Destination, whereas an acquittal leads into the heavenly "Garden of Eden"-Destination.
Thus is the "nature of life after death, according to Orthodox Judaism" as fleshed-out in both the above sources from the TaNaKH and Talmud.