The main body of Shmoneh esrei has praise for Hashem, requests, and thanks. There are a couple of standard places to introduce personal supplications. Pesukei dezimra and Birchas Krias Shma can be summed up also as praise of Hashem and acceptance of his Majesty. These are all very practical approaches.
But as far as an impractical approach such as when a person is happy, or sad, or lonely or loved, or feeling any other emotion which they want to direct towards Hashem for thanks or assistance, where in tefila is that found? Is there somewhere to concentrate on it?