Are there any other places in Tanach where this kind of explicit
There are probably a few, but, one memorable one for me is Shmot 16:35 that states that B'nai Yisra'el ate the manna for 40 years until they arrived at the border of Cana'an. Obviously, it hadn't yet happened.
As to why such cases occur, in general, this fits into the notion that the events in the Torah were not written in sequential order, necessarily, and were edited, later.
I have to explore the message behind this specific verse that you mentioned, as to what important info the Torah is telling us.
Offhand, I think the Torah is emphasizing Lot's character, He was surrounded by righteous men, esp. his uncle Avraham, who took care of him and showed him the acts of kindness. At the point that there was an argument between the herdsmen, and Avraham gives Lot the option to chose where to live, Lot specifically plants his tent in Sodom - an area that was corrupt, and Lot knew that it was corrupt. Yet, it didn't bother him to live there, anyway.
That's what I heard in drashot from my rav and a few Divrei Torah in the past. Have to further research why the Torah foreshadows, here.
Follow up - See Rash"i and Sifsei Chachami, mark 'ayin on the verse you mentioned. The Torah mentions the destruction of Sedom as a decription of the previous phrase that the land was "completely watered". I.e. - Sedom was fertile / watered only prior to the destruction, but it wasn't that way afterwards.
I have trouble understanding that this is a decription of the previous phrase, since there is an etnachta prior to it, thus, making it seem like the description is disconnected from its subject. Maybe an etnachta doesn't form this type of disconnect?