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Is there any meaning, symbolism or explanation why the Torah requires just 1 day for using the 4 species but 7 days to sit in the Succah? Offhand, it seems that sitting in the succah is "more important" than the 4 species, but I don't think that's the real reason.

  • The Torah aslo requires taking the Lulav for 7 days in the Mikdash – Double AA Oct 7 '14 at 0:24
  • The Torah also only required eating Matza/Maror/Pesach on 1 day but prohibited Chametz for 7. You should see this article rambish.org.il/… – Double AA Oct 7 '14 at 0:30
  • Re the article: The zip folder seems to have been removed since then, but "בעניין מצוות ימים טובים" is currently available in full from the Asif site, and part 1 is also available from VBM Har-Etzyon itself. @DoubleAA – Tamir Evan Jan 5 '18 at 7:28
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Taking the four species is much more obviously a mitzvah than sitting outside in a hut. Thus, one could argue that to make it more noticeably a mitzvah, it was commanded for 7 days. See Guide for the Perplexed 3:49.

The Feast of Weeks is the anniversary of the Revelation on Mount Sinai. In order to raise the importance of this day, we count the days that pass since the preceding festival, just as one who expects his most intimate friend on a certain day counts the days and even the hours. This is the reason why we count the days that pass since the offering of the Omer, between the anniversary of our departure from Egypt and the anniversary of the Lawgiving. The latter was the aim and object of the exodus from Egypt, and thus God said, "I brought you unto myself" (Exod. xix. 4). As that great revelation took place only on one day, so we keep its anniversary only one day: but if the eating of unleavened bread on Passover were only commanded for one day, we should not have noticed it, and its object would not have been manifest. For it frequently happens that we take the same kind of food for two or three days. But by our continuing for a whole period [of seven days] to eat unleavened bread, its object becomes clear and evident.

New-Year is likewise kept for one day; for it is a day of repentance, on which we are stirred up from our forgetfulness. For this reason the shofar is blown on this day, as we have shown in Mishneh-torah. The day is, as it were, a preparation for and an introduction to the day of the Fast, as is obvious from the national tradition about the days between New-Year and the Day of Atonement.

The Feast of Tabernacles, which is a feast of rejoicing and gladness, is kept seven days, in order that the idea of the festival may be more noticeable. (Friedlander translation)

As for the significance of specifically 7 days, Ralbag explains that many things in the Torah (including the days of Succos) are based on 7. The reason for this is that there are 7 levels of "existence" (that might not be the best word) and the seventh level is God. Thus the 7 days of Succos remind us of the holiness and separateness of God.

Ralbag Joshua Chapter 6

והנה היה זה המספר לשביעיות ר"ל שהקיפו העיר שבעה ימים והיו שם שבעה כהנים ושבעה שופרות היובלים וביום השביעי הקיפו העיר שבע פעמים [לסיבה בעינה] שזכרנו במספר השבעה שזכרנו בתורה כמו השמיטה ושבעה שמטות ושבע שבתות שהם שבעה ימים שבע פעמים ושבעה ימי הפסח ושבעה ימי סוכה

Ralbag Exodus Chapter 20 The Tenth Lesson

והנה ימצא עוד תועלת בו בדעות והוא שכבר למדנו מענין השבת שבכאן לצורות שבע מדרגות והמדרגה השביעית היא קדש והוא ה' יתעלה והם צורות היסודות והם האיכויות כאילו תאמר החום והקור והלחות והיובש וצורות המתדמי־החלקים המורכבים מהיסודות וצורות הצמחים וצורות הבעלי חיים וצורת האדם — והוא השכל ההיולאני וצורות השכלים הנבדלים והצורה השביעית אשר שפעו ממנה כל אלו הצורות היא ה' יתעלה והנה לשאר הצורות ימצא דבקות־מה בחומר ומלאכות מיוחדות יסודרו מהם זולתי לה' יתעלה וזה כולו מבואר במעט עיון למי שעיין בדברינו בחלק השלישי מהמאמר החמישי מספר מלחמות ה

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