In the shacharit davening, we say a section called "korbanot" and in it, we recount the incense offering and the different types of sacrifices made in including the tamid, continual offering. On Shabbat, we add in the verses describing the additional Shabbat offering (in fact, the same verses found in the Shabbat mussaf prayer). On Rosh Chodesh, we also add in the section covering the biblical rules of the Rosh Chodesh korbanot.
Why don't we add in the korbanot required to be added on other holidays? It can't be because we will mention them in mussaf, because we mention the Shabbat and Rosh Chodesh korbanot in mussaf and yet we insert them earlier.