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In the shacharit davening, we say a section called "korbanot" and in it, we recount the incense offering and the different types of sacrifices made in including the tamid, continual offering. On Shabbat, we add in the verses describing the additional Shabbat offering (in fact, the same verses found in the Shabbat mussaf prayer). On Rosh Chodesh, we also add in the section covering the biblical rules of the Rosh Chodesh korbanot.

Why don't we add in the korbanot required to be added on other holidays? It can't be because we will mention them in mussaf, because we mention the Shabbat and Rosh Chodesh korbanot in mussaf and yet we insert them earlier.

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The Shulchan Arukh rules (OC 48) that one should include the verses related to the Shabbat offerings in the morning because they, unlike the verses for Rosh Chodesh and Yom Tov, are not going to be read later as Maftir.

The Rama notes the Ashkenazi custom of adding the verses related to Rosh Chodesh as well in order to publicize that it is Rosh Chodesh. Seemingly (and this is how the Arukh haShulchan understands it as well) Yom Tov doesn't need to be publicized as it is already quite different from a regular weekday.

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