Richard A. Gabriel has a military interpretation of the Exodus.
A key part of his analysis is that
Avadeem is not the word for slave, it is the word for “worker” or even servant.
Essentially, he states that a transition from mercenary to outright slave is unlikely because there would undoubtedly be opposition, hastening the Exodus outcome. If they were simply nudged to a state of corvee labor, where ownership isn't explicit and right are partially instead of totally revoked, they would be less likely to revolt and risk a life in the wilderness away from civilization.
If they were born slaves for many generations, they would be unlikely to be able to fight their way out as he claims. To support this he offers an interpreted Exodus 12:35 as evidence for fighting:
35 Now the sons of Israel had done according to the word of Moses, for they had requested from the Egyptians articles of silver and articles of gold, and clothing; 36 and the LORD had given the people favor in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they let them have their request. Thus they plundered the Egyptians.
That militarily speaking, this could not be done except by forceful coercion.
How precisely is "avadeem" defined based upon its usage in the Torah only? What are all of its usages in the Torah only?