There's a fairly commonly quoted idea in נזיקין masechtos, that a difference exists between דיני ממונות (monetary cases) and דיני נפשות (capital cases); that by דיני ממונות the חייב [whoever is חייב] is חייב from the outset, and the purpose of the דין is just to be מבאר (to clarify) who is חייב, but they don't actually do anything; in contradistinction to דיני נפשות, where the decision of בית דין actually creates the דין.
Proofs to this are, traditionally, the rule that a person could be obligated to pay money, even without a בית דין; but one who kills someone who is clearly חייב מיתה before the פסק בית דין is himself חייב מיתה, while one who does so after the פסק is not killed ("גברא קטילא קטל").
קנסות are generally put together with דיני נפשות, based on a ירושלמי (source?) that rules that without a פסק בית דין one would not be obligated to pay קנסות, even on the level of לצאת ידי שמים.

My problem is that I have all this wonderful תורה, and no source. So my question is, who among the ראשונים and / or אחרונים discussed this idea?
Names and marei mekomos, please.

  • On which Masechta Sanhedrin or Makkos – sam Jul 15 '14 at 1:09
  • @sam why does it have to be on a specific masechta, or one of those two? See R. Elchanan Kovetz Shiurim 2:14, and there's a Steipler on this in Kehilos Yaakov on Bava Kamma (I'm pretty sure; those are both from memory) – הנער הזה Jul 15 '14 at 1:11
  • @Matt That's the kind of stuff I'm looking for....I'll look into it, thanks :) – MTL Jul 15 '14 at 1:25
  • @sam Either, both -- as long as it's a name that I can put into my notes. – MTL Jul 15 '14 at 1:28
  • @Shokhet I have a lot to say on this sugya actually; I don't think that your Teyreh is so glatt even though I've heard/seen it in multiple places. Some more: there are important rishonim to be seen on Makkos (around daf 5 for knas, daf 11b for nefashos), a rosh that I think is in the first ch of bava kamma, a minchas chinuch, and a Ketzos (somewhere in the first four simanim of C.M.). Also check the nosei keilim on the rambam Melachim perek 9 or so. If you're actually going through the sugya that's where to look – הנער הזה Jul 15 '14 at 1:30

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