Assume that we have a space-colony, or ch"ch, a member of an interplanetary mission dies in space. We know that cremation is forbidden, so what would the process for burial be? Would it be similar to a burial at sea and what are the halachot thereof (they are presumably applicable in such a case).
A number of sources indicate that burial in the sea is not considered burial. See Pirkei De-Rabbi Eliezer (Chap. 39) concerning the Egyptians in the sea, and Yerushalmi (Shabbos 19b) concerning drowning. The idea of burial is that the person is interned on land, where the dead will someday be resurrected, and the bottom of the sea does not qualify.
Therefore, if at all possible, the Chaplain should encourage Jewish seamen to be buried on land. This is certainly in their benefit, in having a halachic burial, and also in having a memory after their death, and in others being able to honor them by visiting the grave.
It sounds like halakha requires that one be buried in the ground and "burial in space" would not be acceptable, although, chas v'sholem, if there is an overwhelmingly exigent circumstance I am sure there would be room to permit it.