Any academic or secular book (not written for a religious Jewish audience) will discuss Jewish philosophy from the perspective of the discipline of philosophy as a whole. You can start with this article on Jewish philosophy from the Jewish Virtual Library, which is pretty good, and go on to read books on specific areas of interest.
There are several books on Medieval Jewish Philosophy with an academic bend, which means that they discuss the Jewish philosophers in context of general philosophical trends of their era. Books of this nature include those of Isaac Husik, Colette Sirat and Raphael Jospe (in increasing order of what I'd recommend). Books that cover more than just the medieval period include The Cambridge History of Jewish Philosophy (2 vol), the Routledge History of Jewish Philosophy, and--the absolute best of them all--Eliezer Schweid's five volume work (though he covers all of medieval philosophy in one volume)