First of all, I think it's important to point out that, like all stereotypes, the proliferation of the stereotype is generally a result of bigotry and ignorance. One can just look at the overwhelming number of hospitals and community centers donated by Jews, disproportionate to other religions, as a proof that we aren't greedy. This is even with excluding 'Jewish' causes i.e. Yeshivos, Jewish orphanages, etc. as one can argue that those are intended to help 'only other Jews', which still shows a lack of greed, yet might nevertheless not be realized by the outside world as lack of greed. Granted, that might lead into an argument that Jews have all the money, but that's a different stereotype.
But like with any effective lie, it's usually based on a grain of truth, so I'll try to give a reason why I believe some of the stereotypes you've mentioned exist.
Rudeness: Historically, and possibly for good reason, Jews wanted to keep themselves separate from the rest of the world. We have always discouraged intermarriage, and there are many other laws designed to keep our interaction with non-Jews to a minimum. Examples include laws like Yayin Nesech* (wine that was handled by a non-Jew; must be discarded), Pas Akum (literally 'bread of a non-Jew'; Jews are forbidden from eating bread made by a non Jew), among others.
In Megillas Esther (3:8-9), Haman argues to King Achashveirosh that it would be good to kill the Jews. One of his arguments (based on the commentary of the Vilna Gaon, I believe) was "If a fly touches a cup of wine, the Jews would remove the fly and drink the wine, yet if the king touched the wine, they would discard the wine". When examples like this are taken out of context and portrayed to the world in a disparaging light, it would spread the belief that Jews are rude and don't want to associate with 'other guys'.
(On a similar note, I always found it amusing that Haman seems to contradict himself in two of his arguments against the Jews. At one point he says that Jews don't pay taxes anyways, so the king wouldn't lose out on money by killing them, yet he also says that he'll give 10,000 silver pieces to cover the tax money the king would lose by not having the Jews around. So which one is it, did the Jews pay taxes or didn't they? Like some stereotypes nowadays too, they seem to be contradicting themselves)
Greed: In the middle ages in Europe, Jews were very limited in their job choices due to Christian persecution. They couldn't own land, and they were 'discouraged' discouraged from other businesses. However, there was one business that was open exclusively to the Jews. While Christians got rid of most of the commandments in the Torah (to them the Old Testament'), there were select few commandments that they kept. One of them was the prohibition against lending with interest. In this case, they followed the law according to Halachah, which says that you are not allowed to lend with interest to your 'brother'. They believed this meant that Christians couldn't lend money to other Christians. In truth, that is what the Halachah is, and similarly, Jews can't lend to other Jews with interest. But since banks are needed for society to exist, and Jews were locked out form other professions, Jews became the bankers for Christians.
As a result of being the only ones 'legally' allowed to be bankers, the stereotype of 'greedy Jewish moneylender' began, and continues through to this day.
To end off on a light note, I remember reading an article on The Onion a while back making fun of the stereotype that Jews control the world. It was titled 'Local Jew Feels Left Out of Worldwide Jewish Conspiracy'. I agree with that guy, I wouldn't mind the Jews that control the world throwing me a few bucks here and there :)
*Disclaimer on the examples: I'm giving the really shorthand version of those laws. As with just about everything else, there are many more finer details in each case.