I am certain there must be a great answer to this question. Please inform me, as my learning is not so great and I have only started on the study of the Scriptures.
Many Christians use the text of Jeremiah 31.31-34 to support their perspective of the "New Covenant" that Jesus supposedly brought. Here is the text:
"Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah. Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the LORD: But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more."
My own conflicts with this are as follows:
1a) If G-d's Law was truly G-d's Law, then the possibility of a "New Covenant" that replaces the Law of Moses would be impossible, since it would undercut the entire reality of the Law to begin with. If G-d is unchanging, immutable, then His Law would be both unchanging and unalterable.
1b) The Christian reading of this passage takes it out of the greater context of the Tanakh as a whole. It must be interpreted in light of all the Tanakh teaches. If G-d said certain institutions and ordinances were forever, then they cannot be changed or altered, forever (as the daily prayers clearly attest to; see yig'dal).
2) Reading this within a Jewish context we can see the Messianic overtones. However, these do not point to the "spiritual ministry" of Jesus, but to the Messianic Age, when a true and actual peace will reign on the Earth, when all will truly know and understand Torah knowledge.
The bottom line, the question, is whether or not my interpretive reading of the text is or is not in line with Jewish exegesis. Am I understanding this text properly, from the appropriate Jewish point of view, and are my arguments against the Christian misinterpretation useful?