How do we know that the God of the Sinai Revelation is the single God of All other God's? Is it not possible that whatever we encountered was simply a messenger of a greater force? I understand that there was a single infinite force from which the universe came forth, but how do we know that it is that force we entered into a covenant with?

  • 2
    He said so. [15]
    – Double AA
    Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 2:35
  • 3
    And the Raavad didn't argue. Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 2:43
  • 1
    If the force is infinite, then there is no room for division. But your question is, maybe Powerful-But-Finite Being #1 spoke at Sinai, claimed to be the infinite being, and meanwhile Powerful Beings 2,3, and 4 just sat there and watched. ?
    – Shalom
    Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 2:56
  • there is a midrash which says God opened the seven heavens and showed them in prophetic vision that there is no other.
    – ray
    Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 5:39
  • Has there been another overwhelming revelation of power over nature itself that has been attributed to another god? If so, cite! If not, either there are other powers that are weaker that God, who cannot control nature to the extent that he can, and we needn't pay them any respect. If there are powers greater than or equal to God's, why have we not seen or heard from them? Where are they? Either they have not control over this world, and so as far as we exist, they are nothing to us and deserve nothing from us. Or they do but they don't bother to act on that power.
    – Baby Seal
    Commented Apr 7, 2014 at 0:29

4 Answers 4


This question is handled by the Rambam in the first few lines of the Yad.

As I understand it, basically we do believe there's a hierarchy - which is described as layers of angels - with the higher ones having more powers than the lower ones.

The very Highest Power - who is actually the source of everything - is the Being we treat as The God.

The first 2 commandments are:

  1. [You must believe that] I am the One Who made everything and I am the Highest Power (lose translation of אנכי ה' א-לקיך)

  2. You may not question this fact (based on the Rambam ibid 1:4) וכל המעלה על דעתו שיש שם אלוה אחר, חוץ מזה--עובר בלא תעשה, שנאמר "לא יהיה לך אלוהים אחרים, על פניי"

A similar concept is reworded by the Mishna in Chagiga 2:1 וכל המסתכל בארבעה דברים, רתוי לו כאילו לא בא לעולם--מה למעלן, מה למטן, מה לפנים, מה לאחור

Essentially saying that questioning what is beyond the end of the universe - is forbidden. The mere discussion of a Greater Force than God is already forbidden.

(This is obviously a summary - the Rambam is more eloquent and more thorough.)


Rabbi Yisroel Chait tackles this question and others quite effectively in his article on Torah From Sinai. Article can be found here.

  • Can you include a summary? Otherwise, this should really just be a comment.
    – Double AA
    Commented Apr 7, 2014 at 4:31

Generally speaking, we believe in things that we have positive evidence for, and we do not accept skeptical questions which do not have any positive basis to them. For example, we spend our lives growing up with our parents, being cared for by them, being told that we look like them etc. etc. This all amounts to positive evidence that our parents are indeed our parents. If a skeptic were to come and ask us for ABSOLUTE PROOF that our parents are really our parents, that we weren't say adopted or switched with a similar looking baby at the hospital, we would disregard his challenge as not having any basis. We have all of our experience to rely on in not accepting his position as true, and he has no positive evidence to back himself up with. However, if he would present us with adoption papers, we might start reconsidering. If he brought pictures of our parents at the adoption agency, we may start having serious doubts, but again he would need to bring very, very strong evidence to convince us to go against our intuitive experience.

The same is true for the Sinai experience. The challenge you present is essentially a "Bring me absolute proof" challenge, which is almost impossible to be met. But that does not give us a positive REASON to accept the challenge in light of our collective intuitive experience, which said that it was indeed God who appeared at Sinai. Additionally, it would be significantly difficult to explain the motivation of aliens to create as elaborate a system of laws as the Torah, as discussed here.

  • "Don't ask me a question that I cannot answer" is not usually a good answer. Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 14:16
  • @DannySchoemann Depends if the question is a good question.
    – Double AA
    Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 14:45
  • @DoubleAA - agreed. Here we are dealing with an elementary question that needs an answer. Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 14:46
  • @DannySchoemann I guess Jules disagrees with that assessment.
    – Double AA
    Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 14:47
  • Perhaps providing all of the circumstantial evidence which leads you to that conclusion would be helpful, rather than just comparing it to a case with lots of circumstantial evidence. Then this might be more than just a statement that you are ok with not having proof. Commented Apr 3, 2014 at 17:38

(as doubleaa pointed out in a comment) He said He is the only God. It does not make sense that a higher force would send a liar... and that liar would command us to be truthful in His torah etc. naaahhh

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