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In Megillah 15a at the bottom, Rav Chisda brings a teaching on the passuk in Esther 5:13 that Mordechai came with his wealth and Haman came with his poorness as Rashi explains the situation:

וזה בא בפרוזבולי. מרדכי בא אליו בטענת עושר המן בא בטענת עוני שמכר המן את עצמו למרדכי קודם לכן ימים רבים בככרי לחם

Haman was poor and sold himself as a slave to Mordechai for bread.

We see that Haman was willing to give 10,000 talents of silver which is a lot of money,where did he get it all from if he was a pauper?

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    Remember: Midrash = / = history. – mevaqesh Jul 14 '16 at 14:09
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According to Pirkei De'Rebbi Eliezer (Chapter 50), he got his wealth by looting all the treasure houses of the kings of Yehuda and the Kodshei Kedoshim (Holy of Holies):

רבי פנחס אומר שני עשירים היו לפנים בעולם, קרח בישראל והמן בשושן . . שלקח כל אוצרות מלכי יהודה ואת כל אוצרות קדשי הקדשים

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The legend is that Haman was not poor, he was impecunious.

Haman and Mordechai were both generals of Achashverosh and Haman ran out of provisions. Mordechai split his provisions on condition that Haman become Mordechai's slave.

Although Haman had a lot of money in his bank account, he was poor in the field.

Source: The only written source I know of is this really good children's book that incorporates every midrash about purim in the book. It is called "Purim Spiel"

The book http://www.jewishaustralia.com/shop/shop_images/thumbnail/1913.gif

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I was taught that Haman found somewhere in the desert a cave or hole where the treasures of the Beith Hamiqdash and other valuable treasures of the kingdom of Yehudah and (long story short) took them home, sold them, got rich, and became advisor for Ahasuerus. I don't have sources but that's all i've got

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I think :According to Pirkei De'Rebbi Eliezer (Chapter 50), he got his wealth by looting all the treasure houses of the kings of Yehuda and the Kodshei Kedoshim (Holy of Holies):

רבי פנחס אומר שני עשירים היו לפנים בעולם, קרח בישראל והמן בשושן . . שלקח כל אוצרות מלכי יהודה ואת כל אוצרות קדשי הקדשים

for more check : rosh hashanah 2016; shana tova; yom kippur 2016.

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Keep reading on 16a and you'll see that your premise isn't entirely correct. In context, when Haman was coming to find Mordechai in order to parade him around the city, Mordechai was teaching about Hilchos Kemitzah. Scared that Haman was coming to harm him, he ordered the other Rabbis to flee (though the story seems to indicate that they didn't listen) and began to daven.

אתא המן ויתיב ליה קמייהו ואוריך עד דסליק מרדכי לצלותיה אמר להו במאי עסקיתו אמרו ליה בזמן שבית המקדש קיים מאן דמנדב מנחה מייתי מלי קומציה דסולתא ומתכפר ליה אמר להו אתא מלי קומצי קמחא דידכו ודחי עשרה אלפי ככרי כספא דידי אמר ליה רשע עבד שקנה נכסים עבד למי ונכסים למי

Haman came and sat before them and waited until Mordechai finished davening. He said to them, "What are you discussing?" They said to him, "When the Temple stood, whoever would donate a Minchah would bring a fingerful of fine flour and be atoned through it." He said to them, "Your fingerful of fine flour has come and pushed aside my 10,000 silver talents." [Mordechai] said to him, "Wicked one! A slave who acquires property - to whom is the slave, and to whom is his property?!"

When the Gemara on 15a says that he was poor, it means just that - he owned nothing, as everything he owned belonged to Mordechai. He still could have had 10,000 silver talents in his possession (however it got there, as per the other answers), but it still belonged to Mordechai.

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