I've heard that there is a concept in Judaism of time in a spiral, but I'm not sure where that idea originally comes from (specifically, which Rabbi originally said it). The earliest I've found is Rav Natan Breslov who lived from 1780-1844.
I beleive that Rabbi Moshe chaim Luzzatu(הרמח"ל) had a spiral concept of time.
"והנה, כיונה (החכמה העליונה) שסוף הסיבוב יהיה תמיד בקודש, ונמצא זה עילוי גדול לכל הימים, שאף על פי שרובם חול ורק חלק אחד משבע הוא הקודש, והוא מה שמצטרך לעולם הזה כמו זכרנו, אמנם מצד אחר, בהיות החלק הזה סוף הסיבוב וחיתומו, נמצא הסיבוב כולו נתקן ומתעלה"
I dont think I am realy up to translate this, but i will search for further reference to his time concept.
Rabbi Eliyahu Dessler, Michtav M'Eliyahu, Vol. II, p. 21 says (here wrt Yom Kippur)
“We have already explained that we do not have a token celebration of the Festivals, rather we actually return to each festival’s origin in time; the very same holiness of time that influences us today is the same as when the Festivals were first commemorated. Rav Tzvi Hirsh Broide from Kelm said that time does not pass by a person; rather, a person travels through time.
For example, on the very first Shabbat there was a “station in time” that was established called Shabbat, and every week a person reaches that same station in time, with exactly the same influence of holiness as the first Shabbat. Similarly regarding the festivals: every year a person returns to the same stations in time of the respective festivals. For example, each year at Passover, a person reaches the “station” of redemption from Egypt, at which time it is possible for him to attain the spiritual energy of the revelation of freedom – for Passover is in actuality the time of our freedom.”
So it is as if we travel in a spiral and the light or influence of the original event shines through the generations and reaches us at our point on the spiral.
Also see here where it says,
Rabbi Dessler described time as a spiral. As we travel through time we return to key moments of the past and recapture the inherent spiritual energy. This is why Jewish holidays are referred to in Hebrew as moadim (meeting places). Similarly, the Hebrew word zman (time) means designated or appointed because every moment in time has been appointed with a specific spiritual purpose.
(I answered your question before your edit. Rav Broide became the head of Yeshivas Kelm in 1903, so it seems that Rav Natan Breslov predates him.)
BSD I read it in an article by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz a sefer that I cant remember.But it could be he was just expounding on another source. Found this link online http://arthurkurzweil.com/time-is-like-a-spiral-or-a-helix-rising-up-from-creation/2229