Why did the Israelites build a golden calf in the desert? The question is, why a calf?

Why not a golden cat, a golden eagle, a golden lion, golden parachutes or a gold bar?

Of all the images they could build, why a calf?


One of the theories at http://ancienthebrewpoetry.typepad.com/ancient_hebrew_poetry/2008/04/elyon-bull-el-a.html is that the original word for "sons of Israel" is "bull el". Bull and calf are kind of related.

  • Are you asking, 'Did B'nei Yisra'el make a calf as opposed to any other idol because they thought God was a calf?'
    – WAF
    Jan 3, 2014 at 12:48
  • It could be an explanation. Actually, the question remain what it is. Why a calf?
    – user4951
    Jan 3, 2014 at 13:32
  • 2
    That "bull" theory is rather far-fetched, to put it mildly.
    – Isaac Moses
    Jan 3, 2014 at 16:21
  • There is also a bronze serpent in Numbers 21:8-9. Jan 3, 2014 at 18:23
  • 1
    Maybe because that's what came out (Exodus 32:24)?
    – Tamir Evan
    Dec 31, 2014 at 18:47

5 Answers 5


One answer I learned, heavily steeped in aggadah, was that there was no intent to build a calf. One of the things thrown into the molten gold was something that had the words "aleh shor" written on it, which was previously used to raise Joseph's bones from the Nile (as Joseph was referred to as an ox, or compared to, I forget) so a cow form arose. That is why Aaron in Ex 32:24 says that the calf emerged, not that it was designed as a calf.

For more on this explanation, read http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0007_0_07514.html and scroll down to "In the Aggadah."

I also learned that the calf was used because it was reminiscent of the Egyptian deity-form so the people would accept it.

Rashi (in addition to citing the above Aggadah), on 32:4 says that Egyptian sorcerers created the shape through sorcery:

As soon as they had cast it into the fire of the crucible, the sorcerers of the mixed multitude who had gone up with them from Egypt came and made it with sorcery. [See commentary on Exod. 12:38.] Others say that Micah was there, who had emerged from the layer of the building where he had been crushed in Egypt. (Sanh. 101b). In his hand was a plate upon which Moses had inscribed “Ascend, O ox; ascend, O ox,” to [miraculously] bring up Joseph’s coffin from the Nile. They cast it [the plate] into the crucible, and the calf emerged. -[from Midrash Tanchuma 19]

  • The calf did actually emerge, without molding from the fire?
    – user4951
    Jan 4, 2014 at 0:05
  • 1
    According to one understanding, the calf emerged preformed as a calf, yes.
    – rosends
    Jan 4, 2014 at 22:57
  • In other word, the calf is a miracle. Only God can make miracles right?
    – user4951
    Jan 5, 2014 at 2:56
  • 2
    @JimThio, Essentially, only God can make anything happen, including the fact that gold melts. If He created or allowed for the creation of a tool that makes oxen rise, and people exercised their free will to use it for evil, that's no different, theologically, than if they had used a mold.
    – Isaac Moses
    Jan 5, 2014 at 3:56
  • @JimThio there are plenty of accounts of others harnessing the power of god and making what appear to be miracles -- the talmudic sages who used a slip of paper with god's name on it to animate dirt into a golem, for example.
    – rosends
    Jan 5, 2014 at 16:49

For starters: anything about idol worship is going to sound a bit weird to us today.

There are a couple of conjectures out there; the simplest is that cattle were a sign of prosperity (you use them to work, and they give you food), so an idol of that form was very popular. (I'm told we also find it in archeological digs.) Note that 500 years later, King Jeroboam wanted to make his own pseudo-Temple to keep people away from Jerusalem, and thought "hm, how do I make this more popular? I know! I'll put in a golden calf! Hey better yet, why not two?" And a calf, being young, means a promise of future prosperity. Note that if there's an unsolved murder, we take a young calf and publicly kill it -- showing how all that potential promise of someone's life was suddenly ended.

The kabbalistically-inclined Nachmanides observes that in Ezekiel Ch. 1, he sees angels surrounding God, and the one on the north side looks something like a calf; the Hebrews in the desert were particularly concerned of a dangerous hot north wind, so that was believed to help.

  • Ha, we both gave the same answer in completely different ways!
    – avi
    Jan 3, 2014 at 13:46
  • "showing how all that potential promise of someone's life was suddenly ended" Source?
    – mevaqesh
    Aug 1, 2016 at 20:01
  • Don't we just put 4 wheels on our idol these days along with a powerful engine.... Sep 19, 2016 at 16:43
  • You said King Jerobeam put calf to make himself popular. What about the other way around? What about if Hashem is really a calf, King Jerobeam got it right, and the Judah king Solomon is the one trying to get people to Jerusalem by declaring that Beith Hamikah is the way to go? The same can be said for every other gods and religions in the world. They can both be true religions or a farce to make people pay tax. What makes jews think they're real? Which is what every other religious people think too you know
    – user4951
    Sep 21, 2016 at 5:01

According to the Midrash, and some texts of the Kabbalah, ( I don't remember the exact sources), when the Jewish people are described as "seeing Gd's feet", what they saw, was the Merkava (chariot) from Ezekiel.

On one of the sides of the Chariot is a bull. That bull represents Mercy. And since they believed Moshe to have died, they were hoping for the Gd of Israel to be full of Mercy, since they would now be lost.

Another idea that I have heard from year to year, is that the Calf represented a new leadership from the Tribe of Yoseph. (Yoseph is compared to a Bull, so Ephraim and Menashe would be calves) This "battle" of Yoseph(Ephraim or Menashe), vs Yehudah, vs Levi plays out throughout tanach, from Bereshit, until Chronicles and the later Prophets. As to why at that point in time they would prefer the style of leadership that Yoseph granted, it is because Yoseph was known for relieving people of burdens, and helping them through touch economic times. It was a more worldly sort of leadership, based on certain type of equality. (Going through all the points for this would be beyond the scope of this answer)


Another approach mentioned in Let My Nation Serve Me by Rabbi Deutsch (published by Artscroll) relates to astrology. For those unfamiliar with the twelve zodiac signs, they are Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces. In order, they are the sheep, bull, twins, crab, lion, woman, scales, scorpion, archer (specifically his bow), goat, water-drawer (specifically his water bucket), and fish. The cycle begins in Nissan and ends in Adar; this is why many sources discuss Adar Beis as not being subject to the influence of the stars (see the discussion of the war with Amalek in the same book).

I'm sure you see where I'm going with this. The sheep was the god of the Egyptians. When Egypt, represented by Aries, fell, the Jews turned to the next Zodiac, the bull.

Many other explanations are presented there, though off the top of my head I believe they've all been covered by the other answers.


The explanation I've heard some 60 years ago, I believe to enforce the opinion of the Ramban, was that when they thought that Moshe had died, they were looking for a place where the Divine Presence, the שכינה, could rest. As such, they wanted to make the כרובים. In Yechezkel 1-10, mentioned by a previous contributor, the 4 images he saw were described as a man, a lion, an ox/calf and an eagle. In chapter 10-14 he describes his vision again, and there he saw a man, a lion, a כרוב and an eagle. This implies that the כרובים resembled an ox/calf! Hence, when they wanted to create the כרובים for the שכינה to rest, they made a calf.

  • But Yechezkel (Ezekiel) is like long after exodus. You mean someone else saw what's in heaven?
    – user4951
    Dec 15, 2022 at 9:29
  • Yes. And not just someone, everybody saw. Our sages tell us that already at the crossing of the Reed Sea the people saw more what goes on in heaven, than Yechezkel would ever see. At the giving of the Torah they might also have seen it.
    – Imanonov
    Dec 16, 2022 at 13:07

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .