Are there any sources that explicitly discuss the halachic status of Sikhism regarding to what extent it follows the Noahide laws, and if it is considered avoda zara or shittuf?
From what I understand "avoda zara" or "shittuf" means, our religion, Sikhism, is neither. It's a monotheistic religion where we believe in the existence of one Omni-Present God.
He is above all. He is not confined in any idol or temple. He created us. We respect Him for what He has given us. (That's why we are not supposed to trim body or facial hair, or perform circumcision.)
Regarding Noahide laws, I am not able to understand them clearly. I apologize. I will do some more research and get back on that later.
I'm not aware of any halachic literature on the subject, but I've never seen any reason to treat it as Avoda Zara. Sikhism has some qualms with some of the practices of Islam (e.g. circumcision) but generally stays quite close to its overall theology.
I do not believe Sikhism contains elements of either avodah zarah or problematic Shituf.
Sikhism is a strict monotheism (Ek Onkar - One God) based on the teachings of the 11 Gurus (10 human teachers, one textual, the Guru Grath Sahib). It was started around 1500 CE by Guru Nanak in the Punjab part of India.
For baptized (ordained/confirmed) Sikhs (male or female), strict vows are undertaken - lesser vows by the lay membership. These include -Rise in the anrit vela (21/2 hrs before sunrise) and recite morning prayers, meditations, yoga and others practices -Recite 2 other prayers throughout the day -Recite the evening prayer around sunset -Recite the night prayer before sleep -Refrain from intoxicants and stimulants -Treat all people with respect and courtesy and protect all human rights -Earn an honest living -Share with those in need
For many “baptized” (amritdhari) Sikhs they have additional commitments: -Refrain from all meats, fish, etc. -Keep all hair - kesh and wear the dastar (turban) -Carry kirpan (ceremonial blade), at least symbolically -Wear kachera (modest undershorts) -Use a kanda (wooden comb) -Wear the kara (steel bangle)
Put very simply, these are the do's and don'ts of Sikhism: Do: -Respect the equal rights of all regardless of rank, gender, caste, class, color, or creed. -Share with others, especially those in need. -Perform altruistic service for humanity. -Earn income by honest employment. -Come to the aid of the defenseless. -Keep all hair intact and unaltered. -Meditate and read or recite daily prayers. -Worship and recognize one divine light manifest in all. -Regard any other than one’s spouse as brothers or sisters. -Become initiated as Khalsa and wear the five articles of faith. -Follow ideals of the ten gurus, accepting the perpetual guidance of Sikhism's scripture the Guru Granth.
Eleven Sikhism Don'ts The goal of Sikhism is to subdue and overcome the effects of ego which foster duality and work to keep one from realizing enlightenment and union with the divine. These eleven Sikhism don’ts outline means of avoiding falling into the trap of egocentric living. Don't: -Worship idols. -Deify any human being. -Pray to demigods or deities. -Observe caste or gender inequality. -Give credence to auspicious dates, horoscopes, or astrology. -Be involved with illegal activities or dishonorable associates. -Cut or otherwise alter the hair of the head, face, or body. -Engage in premarital or extramarital intimacies. -Eat the meat of sacrificial animals. -Practice superstitious rituals. -Smoke or use intoxicants.
My knowledge of Sikhism is from being a professor of World Religions (and knowing adherents of Sikhi) and my knowledge regarding avoda zara and halacha is from being a rabbi. Brachot.