According to this source, there is no source:
No discussion of Jewish attitudes toward Aristotle can be complete (not that this essay aspires to completeness in any event) without mention of the infamous, scurrilous "Rabbitstotle" legend of the great philosopher being caught devouring a live rabbit, and responding to his surprised observer that "I am (or: 'this is') not Aristotle"; but although this story is quite widespread in contemporary frum circles, I have yet to locate any source for it whatsoever, even an unreliable one, and I once (reasonably discreetly) walked out of a lecture by a very prominent speaker in frustration at his confident assertion of this libel (or one of its variants) as fact. This ridiculous anecdote has even been attributed (comment #46 to this article) to, of all people, Rambam (!)...
In a comment on that post, a reader suggests:
Perhaps the "Rabbitstotle" legend of the great philosopher being caught devouring a live rabbit,has been confused with the well documented story of Nevuchadnetzar being caught by Tzikiyahu Hamelech doing the same type of act. See: Nedarim (65a), Midrash Tanchuma (Va'eschanan, 1), Ben Sira (II).
Interestingly, Abraham Epstein writes that the ארנבת was sacred in Greek culture because it was associated with Aphrodite or Venus, and he cites Pliny as writing that one who eats its meat for seven days will acquire beauty. Looking at Pliny's Natural History, I found the following:
Cato thought that to take hare as food is soporific, and a popular belief is that it also adds charm to the person for nine days, a flippant pun, but so strong a belief must have some justification.
Wikipedia provides some context:
Herodotus, Aristotle, Pliny and Claudius Aelianus all described the rabbit as one of the most fertile of animals. It thus became a symbol of vitality, sexual desire and fertility. The hare served as an attribute of Aphrodite and as a gift between lovers.