In Recalling the Covenant (pp. 26-7), R. Moshe Shamah notes this and explains it as part of a broader thematic and textual parallel between the Adam and Cain narratives, meant to highlight "the presence of human free will, the call for compliance with God's wishes, and the dire consequences for disobedience."
In each case, God asks the sinners a similar rhetorical question: "Where are you" (Genesis 3:9) in the case of Adam, "What is this that you have done" (3:13), in the case of Eve, and "Where is Abel your brother" (4:9), in the case of Cain.
In all three cases, they refuse to take responsibility for their actions.
Adam blames Eve (3:12), Eve blames the serpent (3:13), and Cain completely denies any knowledge of Abel's whereabouts (4:9)
In all three cases, their behaviour leads to punishment. Similar language is used in Adam's punishment: "Cursed be the soil for your sake" (3:17), and Cain's punishment: "Cursed shall you be from the soil" (4:11).